SFI ACADEMIC PERIODICAL “THE LIGHT OF CHRIST ENLIGHTENS ALL”. ISSUE 5
The Light of Christ Enlightens All : Academic periodical of St. Philaret's Christian Orthodox Institute. Issue 5. Moscow : St. Philaret's Christian Orthodox Institute, 2012. 176 p.
The Point of Bifurcation: The Orthodox Church in Soviet Russia at the Historic Turning Point of the 1940s (as Experienced in the Northwestern Regions of the Country)
The aim of the present sketch is to demythologize the so-called “new course” of Stalin’s Church policies in the period from 1943 to 1949. Drawing on archival research as well as on published sources, the author has made use of the scientific concept of synergetics in seeking to determine the turning point in the history of the Orthodox Church in Soviet Russia. The point of bifurcation, the event that effected a fundamental change in the subsequent historical development of the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) was the Council of Bishops of September 8, 1943 and the second restoration of the Patriarchate in Russia that it sanctioned. From that moment on not only outward Church revival started but also Stalin and the Soviet leadership began to actively involve the Church into their internal and external plans.
Keywords: point of bifurcation, synergetics, fluctuation, Procurator-General of the Holy Synod, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Council for Russian Orthodox Church Affairs, Commissioner of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church Affairs.
Christian Education in Schools of N. N. Neplyuev in Late XIX – Early XX Century
The article reviews the practice of Christian upbringing at one of educational centers of the pre-Revolutionary Russia – the primary agricultural school of Nickolay Nickolayevich Neplyuev (1851–1908) at Vozdvizhensk. Pedagogical system which existed there was really unique. However, in Soviet times Neplyuev’s heritage was buried to oblivion. Nowadays his activities are knowledge only to a narrow circle of specialists. Today when both parents and the church face the acute problem of Christian upbringing of children, analyses of the unique experience of the school is of urgent importance. In the article special attention is attracted to the aims and principles of Neplyuev’s pedagogy and to the results of educational activities of his school.
Keywords: Nickolay Neplyuev, Vozdvizhensk school, the Holy Cross Labour Brotherhood, pedagogy, Christian upbringing, education, Christianity.
Problems of the Synod Internal Mission Missionaries’ Activities (According to “Missionary Review” Magazine Materials of 1896–1916)
The article presents a short review of the Russian internal mission’ s problems according to materials of “Missionary Review” magazine of 1896–1916. The magazine was an official periodical of the Synod internal mission, which was established in the first half of the XIX century to fight schism and sectarianism. Special interviews where “objects of the mission” were often summoned with police force became the main form of missionary activity. After the Toleration Act of 1905, the Internal mission in part switched to enlightenment of formal Orthodox Christians. The analysis of problems and mistakes of the internal mission in the XIX – early XX century may be helpful in making today’s mission more fruitful.
Keywords: missionary review, missionary, internal mission, anti-sectarian, magazine, polemic-apologetic magazine, internal mission magazine, Skvortsov Vladimir Mikhailovich.
Student Works at SFI's Department of Church History
The Polemic about the Attitude to Heretics in Russian Church in the First Third of the XVI Century
In the history of the Russian Orthodox church the first third of the XVI century was marked by the sharp arguments between two theological-practical tenors. One of them was represented by Vassian Patrikeev and the elders (startsy) from over the Volga, the other by Iosif Volotskii and the Metropolitan of Moscow Daniil. Guiding by the recent analytical investigations the author reconstructs a part of the arguments, the polemic about the church attitude to heretics that brought the attention of the church to the responsibility of pastors (including bishops and the Metropolitan) for the heretics’ conversation, their torments and death, for the sufferings of the common Christians. As the result of Iosif followers’ victory and the forced closure of the polemic, the raised problem was not solved. At the same time the polemic displayed that the way of the solution was bringing the practice of church life in correspondence with its evangelic norms.
Keywords: polemic, heretic, death penalty, Abbot Iosif of the Volokolamsk Monastery (Iosif Volotsky), Vassian Patrikeev, Metropolitan Daniil, kormchaia = the book of Canons.
Analysis of “Responses of the Diocesan Bishops on the Issue of Church Reform” (1905–1906) in relation to Parish Development and Improvements
The article presents an overview of opinions of bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church at the turn of the XIX–XX century on reasons of parish decline. Special attention is attributed to the question of parish reform and tendencies which influenced the discussions and elaboration of the Parish Regulation of the Local Council in 1917–1918. The attempts of the bishops to define “parish” and their proposals on the revival of parish life are of great interest. In the article general overview of the document under scrutiny and brief characteristics of the clergy at the beginning of the XX century is given.
Keywords: bishop, parish, brotherhood, reform, catholicity, pre-Council discussion of 1906, Council of 1917–1918.
Overview of Activity of the Fraternity Sts Peter, Alexis, Iona and Philip, Metropolitans of Moscow (1909–1917)
The article analyses activity of Moscow interparish Fraternity Sts Peter, Alexis, Iona and Philip, Metropolitans of Moscow. It was created at the end of 1909 and existed until 1917–1918. The Fraternity differed from many other parish fraternities by its aims, membership and forms of activity. It united people of traditional piety who craved “revival of the origins of catholicity (sobornost) on the basis of a living church relationship between a bishop, clergy and laymen”. The focus of attention for the Fraternity was vital problems of church life: recovery of sobornost, involvement of laymen into divine service and church charity. Members of the Fraternity were actively involved into preparations of the Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church. The most enthusiastic summoned up church forces to fight against persecutions of the atheistic regime.
Keywords: Fraternity, F. D. Samarin, A. D. Samarin, sobornost, laymen, parish, divine service, Council of 1917–1918.
«New Course» (1943–1953) in Relations between the State and the Church: the Case of Tula Diocese
The article reviews milestone events in the life of Tula diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church in the context of new relations between the state and the church (so-called «New Course») during the period from 1943 to 1953. The author tries to analyze and comprehend regional aspect of the «New Course» compared to the events which were happening in the top echelon of power. The research is based on documents from the local archives, many of which have been introduced into scientific use for the first time. These materials help to better understand mechanisms behind the processes the Soviet machine tried to manipulate the Russian Orthodox Church, and how the church, overcoming compromises, was getting out of the state of crisis after unprecedented persecutions of the 1920s–1930s.
Keywords: church-state relations, «New Course», Authorized Representative for the Russian Orthodox Church affairs, anti religion campaign, Tula diocese, opening of churches, revival of church structure.