Pedagogical Statement of Freedom Problem and its Classical Solution
Выпуск №10, pp. 149-171
The problem of freedom as “the key question of education and moral philosophy”, according to K. D. Ushinsky, is analyzed within the context of modern situation in educational philosophy. The theory of moral education of S. I. Gessen is presented as its classical solution. Neokantian roots of the theory as well as the affinity of Gessen’s viewpoints to another representative of Russian neokantianism M. M. Bakhtin are demonstrated in the article. The author presents deep analysis of the Gessen’s solution with the emphasis on its dialectic and dynamic nature. The article traces the development of the idea of permanent human selftranscendance as a way to exercise freedom in German transcendentalism, existentialism and phenomenology. As a semantic parallel to Gessen’s “applied philosophy” in the field of psychology existential anthropology of V. Frankl is introduced. The author shows how the idea of ontologization of the morality, according to Frankl and Gessen, is linked to the tendency of “dragging” spirituality into a human character in the modern anthropology and pedagogy.
Keywords: pedagogy, morality, existentialism,freedom, autonomy, personality, transcendence.
Christian Education in Schools of N. N. Neplyuev in Late XIX — Early XX Century
Выпуск №5, pp. 36 – 65
The article reviews the practice of Christian upbringing at one of educational centers of the pre-Revolutionary Russia — the primary agricultural school of Nickolay Nickolayevich Neplyuev (1851–1908) at Vozdvizhensk. Pedagogical system which existed there was really unique. However, in Soviet times Neplyuev’s heritage was buried to oblivion. Nowadays his activities are knowledge only to a narrow circle of specialists. Today when both parents and the church face the acute problem of Christian upbringing of children, analyses of the unique experience of the school is of urgent importance. In the article special attention is attracted to the aims and principles of Neplyuev’s pedagogy and to the results of educational activities of his school.
Keywords: Nickolay Neplyuev, Vozdvizhensk school, the Holy Cross Labour Brotherhood, pedagogy, Christian upbringing, education, Christianity.
Ways to Preserve the Spiritual Content in Russian Art Pedagogy in 1920–1930s
Выпуск №29, pp. 94–104
The article provides insight into the specifics of the content of Russian art pedagogy in 1920s–1930s, as exemplified in the theory and practice of teaching various subjects related to the introduction to art. It is shown how the ideological approach gained momentum in this area leading to such consequences as shortening the training time for art teachers and decreasing the number of specialised schools, and most importantly, simplifying the forms and content of artworks, which were analysed primarily in terms of their ‘usefulness’. Examples are given of how some psychologists and art teachers (first of all, L. S. Vygotsky and A. V. Bakushinsky) were able, at least in part, to keep their focus on the depth of the aesthetic content of artworks and on their individual perception. It is argued that the well-known theorist of Christian pedagogy V. V. Zenkovsky, though recognising the strength and positive significance of the aesthetic impact on students but opposing the religious and moral movements of the soul, underestimated the importance of beauty in bearing witness to spiritual values. It is concluded that within the Marxist conceptual approach it was the deepening of the aesthetic component in art pedagogy that turned out to be a form of preserving its spiritual content.
Keywords: spiritual content of education, art pedagogy, artistic perception, experience, Orthodox pedagogy, Christian anthropology
Structural, Educational and Methodological Basis of a Church Art Course Aimed at Prospective Church Ministers and Catechists
Выпуск №23, pp. 74-90
The article presents an outline and analysis of an immersion church art course taught over several study days.Examples provided in the article illustrate the methodological basis of the course: rather than being a summarised art history and theological narrative, it is cohesive perception of the church building and the unity of its conceptual and artistic elements. The article lists arguments in favour of introducing local church monuments as part of the course. The author argues that creative goal setting facilitates perception of the study material and stimulates an interest towards it. It is concluded that proprietary courses of this type could be designed for religious colleges, seminaries, theology institutes and catechetical certification programmes, and adapted to their local contexts.
Keywords: church art, art education, church building, concept, cohesion, comparison, methodology, academic course, catechesis.
History and Christian Orthodox Bases in A. A. Shteven-Ershova’s Educational Activity (1885–1895)
Выпуск №17, pp. 9-24
A.A. Shteven’s work on opening schools of literacy in the late XIX century was known throughout Russia. Compared with the formal education system, her distinctive pedagogical framework evolved independently allowing finding new approaches, principles and forms of educational activities which are of interest for today’s Christian pedagogy. The article describes three stages of A. Shteven’s pedagogical activity and her efforts in opening schools of literacy. The Christian Orthodox principles of her pedagogical system are also outlined.
Keywords: Christian Orthodox education, Christian pedagogy, schools of literacy, primary education, enlightenment, Alexandra Alexeyevna Shteven-Ershova.