Religious Pedagogy and Formation in the Faith
Pedagogical Statement of Freedom Problem and its Classical Solution
Выпуск №10, pp. 149–171
The problem of freedom as “the key question of education and moral philosophy”, according to K. D. Ushinsky, is analyzed within the context of modern situation in educational philosophy. The theory of moral education of S. I. Gessen is presented as its classical solution. Neokantian roots of the theory as well as the affinity of Gessen’s viewpoints to another representative of Russian neokantianism M. M. Bakhtin are demonstrated in the article. The author presents deep analysis of the Gessen’s solution with the emphasis on its dialectic and dynamic nature. The article traces the development of the idea of permanent human selftranscendance as a way to exercise freedom in German transcendentalism, existentialism and phenomenology. As a semantic parallel to Gessen’s “applied philosophy” in the field of psychology existential anthropology of V. Frankl is introduced. The author shows how the idea of ontologization of the morality, according to Frankl and Gessen, is linked to the tendency of “dragging” spirituality into a human character in the modern anthropology and pedagogy.
Keywords: pedagogy, morality, existentialism,freedom, autonomy, personality, transcendence.
Christian Education in Schools of N. N. Neplyuev in Late XIX – Early XX Century
Выпуск №5, pp. 36–65
The article reviews the practice of Christian upbringing at one of educational centers of the pre-Revolutionary Russia – the primary agricultural school of Nickolay Nickolayevich Neplyuev (1851–1908) at Vozdvizhensk. Pedagogical system which existed there was really unique. However, in Soviet times Neplyuev’s heritage was buried to oblivion. Nowadays his activities are knowledge only to a narrow circle of specialists. Today when both parents and the church face the acute problem of Christian upbringing of children, analyses of the unique experience of the school is of urgent importance. In the article special attention is attracted to the aims and principles of Neplyuev’s pedagogy and to the results of educational activities of his school.
Keywords: Nickolay Neplyuev, Vozdvizhensk school, the Holy Cross Labour Brotherhood, pedagogy, Christian upbringing, education, Christianity.
Ways to Preserve the Spiritual Content in Russian Art Pedagogy in 1920–1930s
Выпуск №29, pp. 94–104
The article provides insight into the specifics of the content of Russian art pedagogy in 1920s–1930s, as exemplified in the theory and practice of teaching various subjects related to the introduction to art. It is shown how the ideological approach gained momentum in this area leading to such consequences as shortening the training time for art teachers and decreasing the number of specialised schools, and most importantly, simplifying the forms and content of artworks, which were analysed primarily in terms of their ‘usefulness’. Examples are given of how some psychologists and art teachers (first of all, L. S. Vygotsky and A. V. Bakushinsky) were able, at least in part, to keep their focus on the depth of the aesthetic content of artworks and on their individual perception. It is argued that the well-known theorist of Christian pedagogy V. V. Zenkovsky, though recognising the strength and positive significance of the aesthetic impact on students but opposing the religious and moral movements of the soul, underestimated the importance of beauty in bearing witness to spiritual values. It is concluded that within the Marxist conceptual approach it was the deepening of the aesthetic component in art pedagogy that turned out to be a form of preserving its spiritual content.
Keywords: spiritual content of education, art pedagogy, artistic perception, experience, Orthodox pedagogy, Christian anthropology
Выпуск №37, pp. 109–122
This article is about the experience of a new and unique type of educational institution which was born as a collective effort, during the late Soviet era, among Soviet intelligentsia, given their interest in religion and the Orthodox Church. The team did not try to recreate either the structure or the forms currently employed for seminary or university education. The author demonstrates the use of relevant early church catechetical systems, which open out into the necessity for further system-driven educational development which nevertheless presumes both the rejection of scholasticism and the assumption that there is no insurmountable rift between the attainment of knowledge in an intellectual sense and experienced knowledge in terms of spiritual, ecclesial practice. The principles of the new educational system, which occurs in three stages, are forged within the context of the search for commonality and unity in community, without which spiritual schools are doomed to formalization and degeneration. Maximal resources are dedicated to the active engagement of students with the educational process itself; the form and content of their independent work is proscribed, and then described, in specific, written detail. The necessity and opportunity to orient students directly toward the achievement of serious Christian theological thought are underscored, given the fact that the educational process is not primary, but an addition to the existential aspect of students’ lives. We consider this new type of spiritual education within the context of our understanding of the Christian tradition as a unity of theology, culture and education within the context of the church. We at the Moscow higher school of Orthodox Theology have come to the conclusion that spontaneous revelation of principles, methods and patterns on the basis of reintegrated patristic-style catechesis is an answer to the contemporary crisis in higher education, in many ways similar to what we see in the appearance of various forms of “open university” education.
Keywords: catechesis, church community, brotherhood, Christian education, stage-by-stage process, spiritual literature, Orthodox Christian tradition, educational programmes.
Structural, Educational and Methodological Basis of a Church Art Course Aimed at Prospective Church Ministers and Catechists
Выпуск №23, pp. 74–90
The article presents an outline and analysis of an immersion church art course taught over several study days.Examples provided in the article illustrate the methodological basis of the course: rather than being a summarised art history and theological narrative, it is cohesive perception of the church building and the unity of its conceptual and artistic elements. The article lists arguments in favour of introducing local church monuments as part of the course. The author argues that creative goal setting facilitates perception of the study material and stimulates an interest towards it. It is concluded that proprietary courses of this type could be designed for religious colleges, seminaries, theology institutes and catechetical certification programmes, and adapted to their local contexts.
Keywords: church art, art education, church building, concept, cohesion, comparison, methodology, academic course, catechesis.
History and Christian Orthodox Bases in A. A. Shteven-Ershova’s Educational Activity (1885–1895)
Выпуск №17, pp. 9–24
A.A. Shteven’s work on opening schools of literacy in the late XIX century was known throughout Russia. Compared with the formal education system, her distinctive pedagogical framework evolved independently allowing finding new approaches, principles and forms of educational activities which are of interest for today’s Christian pedagogy. The article describes three stages of A. Shteven’s pedagogical activity and her efforts in opening schools of literacy. The Christian Orthodox principles of her pedagogical system are also outlined.
Keywords: Christian Orthodox education, Christian pedagogy, schools of literacy, primary education, enlightenment, Alexandra Alexeyevna Shteven-Ershova.
On the 30th Anniversary of St Philaret’s Christian Orthodox Institute. Interview with Fr Georgy Kochetkov, founder and rector of SFI
Выпуск №29, pp. 105–122