SFI ACADEMIC PERIODICAL “THE LIGHT OF CHRIST ENLIGHTENS ALL”. ISSUE 28
The Light of Christ Enlightens All : Academic periodical of St. Philaret's Christian Orthodox Institute. Issue 28. Moscow : St. Philaret's Christian Orthodox Institute, 2018. 212 p.
The Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom “Outcompeting” the Liturgy of St. Basil the Great in the Church of Constantinople
At the present time, exploring the history of worship implies not only analyzing liturgical texts and the processes of their formation but also studying the practices of performing divine services, as reflected in written sources, such as canons, hagiographic literature, sermons, and writings of church figures. These sources contain indications of worship peculiarities in various ages and regions. The article focuses on the complex phenomenon of the Orthodox worship of the Byzantine rite. Celebrated nowadays only ten times a year, the Liturgy of St. Basil the Great used to be the main Byzantine liturgy for Sundays and holidays over the church year. However, due to certain circumstances, it has taken a back seat. On the contrary, the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, formerly considered as a “standby” and intended for the weekdays, has gradually come to the fore during the past millennium and has begun to be viewed as the main liturgy of the Byzantine rite, as evidenced not only by liturgical manuscripts but also by surviving indirect data about the celebration practices. Despite the indisputable fact of removing the Liturgy of St. Basil from leading positions, the causes of this change were not previously the subject of historical and liturgical analysis. Thanks to the achievements of comparative liturgics and the contrastive analysis of liturgical and hagiographic evidence, the author points out the major causes for this displacement and associates them not with convenience and the concision of the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom but with a whole complex of changes in the practice of liturgical piety, characteristic of monastic and lay churches in Constantinople.
Keywords: Liturgy of St. Basil the Great, Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, anaphora, Byzantine rite, Orthodox worship, euchologion, typicon.
The Problem of Applying the Concept of “Consciousness” in Interpreting Christian Triadology
This article considers the issue of using the concept of “consciousness” in interpreting the late-antique and medieval Christian triadology. The author demonstrates how the content of biblical, patristic and liturgical texts generates this theological-philosophical problem. A phenomenological method is used: the reader is invited to follow the inner logic and problems of trinitarian theology. The article points out the limitations of the traditional trinitarian terminology. In the authorʼs opinion, the presentation of classical theology in modern language has an important theoretical and practical significance for the formation of Christian identity nowadays. The article shows what conceptual conclusions follow from the development of the trinitarian and antitrinitarian positions on the issue of consciousness within the Trinity. It is also emphasized that, in solving this problem, it is important to understand the difference in the New European interpretation of “consciousness” from the late-antique and medieval understanding of this phenomenon. In general, the article allows for some conclusions about the specifics of the interaction between church and secular languages.
Keywords: Trinity, triadology, hypostasis, person, terminology, consciousness, self-consciousness, autocracy, patristics, theology, religious language.
“Is Everyone to Blame for All and for Everything”? Guilt and Responsibility in Russian Culture
The article deals with the attitude to the issues of guilt and responsibility in the Russian culture of the XIX and XX centuries as well as with their transformation in the present. This topic is considered with reference to the centenary of the Russian revolution in terms of comprehending the ways out from the anthropological catastrophe of the XX century. The author takes as the basic Russian idea F. M. Dostoevsky’s thought about everyone’s guilt for everything and traces its development and echoes in the writings of other authors, churchmen and society figures.
Keywords: guilt, responsibility, repentance, Dostoevsky, Russian culture,
culture of guilt.
The Anthropological Aspect of the Revolution Theme in the Russian Emigrationʼs Religious Thought (Archpriest Sergius Bulgakov, Georgy Fedotov, Mother Maria (Skobtsova))
The author analyses how religious thinkers of the Russian emigration (Archpriest Sergius Bulgakov, Georgy Fedotov, Mother Maria (Skobtsova)) reflected on the Russian Revolution of 1917 and traced the initial anthropological shifts that later were used by the totalitarian state in its project of creating a “new” “soviet human being”. Particularly, they focused on such phenomena as being captivated by the chaos of riot, merging with crowd, refusing to think independently. Opposing to this process of dehumanisation was viewed by them as understanding and recognising of their own guilt and historical responsibility for the crisis shaking Russia as well as their interconnectedness with those suffering, perishing, and “defeated”.
Keywords: anthropology, revolution, human being, history, Archpriest Sergius Bulgakov, Georgy Fedotov, Mother Maria (Skobtsova).
The Soldiersʼ Revolution of 1917 and Prerequisites of Forming the Mass Society in Russia
The article analyses the role of soldiery in the revolutionary events of 1917 in Russia. The mass of soldiery is understood as a social new formation that took shape in Russia by the beginning of 1917 and had a special type of political culture. The author highlights the features of how soldiers perceived political realities and events as well as the motivation of their behaviour. The specific ways of setting and achieving relevant goals for the mass of soldiery are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the formation of a special type of social and political communications that connected the mass of soldiery and Bolshevik organizations in 1917. The prerequisites for a unique way of formation of mass society in Russia are also traced.
Keywords: revolution, political culture, Bolsheviks, workers, peasants, mass of soldiery, mass society.
Simplifying Culture in an Organized Way? The Concept and Ideologeme of Culturalness in Soviet Russia of the 1920s
The article considers the concept and ideologeme of culturalness in Soviet Russia of the 1920s based on the analysis of thematic patterns of culture in the early Soviet socio-political discourse, journalism and mass everyday life. The author outlines the process of how the categories of culturalness and the dominants in understanding culture as an ideological and pragmatic construct were formed.
Keywords: Soviet Russia of the 1920s, images of culturalness, revolution culture, work culture, everyday culture, political culture.
The Impact of the 1917 Revolution on the Evolution of the Concept of Mental Disorder
The psychiatric criteria of norm and mental illness are socially relevant, as they can be used as tools of social manipulation and crackdown on any kind of dissent. Referring to the cultural and historical background, the paper demonstrates the prevalence of the fatalistic biological and the subjective voluntarist approaches to the issue of mental norm and pathology in the pre-revolutionary period. The Soviet era is characterised by impersonal collectivism and ideological onesidedness. In all these cases, willingly or not, either moral (ideological) or purely biological evaluations are decisive in diagnosing mental disorders. The today’s definition of mental health, formulated by the World Health Organization, is also not free from these shortcomings. Based on the trichotomy of spirit-soul-body, taken by the Russian psychiatry from Christian anthropology, the concepts of psyche (mental processes) and mental disorder are suggested. The author also highlights their relation to the spheres of “spiritual” and “mental”.
Keywords: degeneration, voluntarism, subjectivism, reeducation, trichotomy, apophaticism, the 1917 Revolution.
A Word from the Golden Gate: Excerpta from the Correspondence between Archbishop John (Shakhovskoy) and A. I. Solzhenitsyn (1968–1982)
This article is dedicated to the centenary of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s birth. The writer’s archive contains several letters written by Archbishop of San Francisco John (Shakhovskoy), an outstanding figure of the Russian Diaspora who highly esteemed Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn even before his expulsion from the USSR in 1974. Archbishop John was familiar with his publications in the “Novy Mir” magazine. After 1974 he started correspondence with the writer, met him in person and donated some sacred objects for his family chapel in Vermont. The article reconstructs the chronology of the relationship between Archbishop John and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn according to Shakhovskoy’s reactions in the emigre press to the writer’s work. An excerpt of their correspondence from the Solzhenitsyn’s archive in Troitse-Lykovo is published for the first time.
Keywords: Archbishop John (Shakhovskoy), Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Orthodox Church in America, Russian realism
From the “Prayer” to the Refusal to Receive Absolution: Is It Possible to Define Solzhenitsynʼs Christianity?
The article traces the evolution of Christian themes and motifs in A. I. Solzhenitsynʼs work and raises the question of the nature of his Christian faith and of its role in his literary and journalistic writings. Special attention is paid to the imagery of the righteous, to the theme of repentance and forgiveness as well as to the writerʼs interest to aesthetics in Christianity and to the representation of Old Believers. The article also reflects how Olivier Clement and Protopresbyter Alexander Schmemann viewed Solzhenitsynʼs Christianity. It is concluded that there was a complex controversy between of the heavenly “republic” and the earthly one within the writerʼs creative universe.
Keywords: Christianity, Christian writer, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Protopresbyter Alexander Schmemann, repentance, Solzhenitsynʼs work.
Therefore Go. Book Review: Anastasios (Yannoulatos), Archbishop. Even to the Ends of the Earth : Studies in Mission History. Moscow : Sts. Cyril and Methodius Theological Institute of Postgraduate Studies, 2018. 224 p.