On the anniversary of the Editor in Chief, Fr Georgy Kochetkov (congratulations from the members of the Editorial Board)
Liturgical Studies. Translations of Divine Services into Modern Languages
The question of translation is a question of the living tradition of the Church (Foreword from the Editor-in-Chief)
Translations of the Anaphora Prayers of St John Chrysostom in the First Half of the 20th Century: A Theological Interpretation of the Liturgical Text
This study proposes a theological analysis of early 20th century various liturgical translations of one the most highly used liturgical texts – the Anaphora of St John Chrysostom. The goal of this study is to reveal the theological particularities of the various translations; the author then proposes her own interpretation of specific elements within the text of the Eucharistic prayer. The study also attempts to illustrate various translators’ personal approaches to the text of the Anaphora when rendering it into Russian language. The author focuses on the translations of Fr Sergei Petrovsky, Fr Pyotr Polyakov, Fr Vasily Adamenko (later Hieromonk Theophan), and Bishop Makary (Opotsky), occasionally making reference also to other translations.
The authors and compilers of the published translations were closely acquainted with the possibilities that translation into Russian language presented for their task of translating the text of the Anaphora, given that they were brought up and received their spiritual education in a prerevolutionary linguistic environment. The beginning of the 20th century saw the development
of a tradition of research into the text of the Eucharistic prayers, as can be seen from looking at the curricula of courses in Liturgics being taught at Russia’s spiritual academies at that time, as well as reviewing Masters and Doctoral theses, written by graduates of these same academies. A theological basis for the given translations can therefore be assumed. Translations of liturgical texts, for instance A Collection of Ancient Liturgies (Sobranije drevnikh liturgij), were produced within the framework of dedicated academic research, thanks to which interested readers had the opportunity to acquaint themselves with ancient liturgical practice.
Thanks to A Collection of Ancient Liturgies and other liturgical studies undertaken at the spiritual schools, there arises a translation initiative which proposed the integration of academic research and pastoral practice. The authors of these translations hoped not only to educate by making the practice of church liturgy more accessible to the participants with their translations, but aspired even to enable lay people to participate more actively and thoughtfully in worship. At the
same time, the fact that some of the translations appear in a form intended for use by clergy when serving liturgy, shows that it was possible for clergy to make use of such texts. The conclusions of this study show that the authors of the translations not only translated the original Greek of the Anaphora into Russian, but made use of theological interpretation when doing so, thereby proposing clarification and interpretation within the framework of the translations themselves.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, liturgical translations, Liturgy of St John Chrysostom, anaphora, Fr Sergij Petrovsky, Fr Pyotr Polyakov, Hieromonk Theophan (Adamenko), Bishop Makary (Opotsky).
Himnography in the modern Serbian Language: Lexicon, Stylistics, Interculturality
The article deals with the practice of the liturgical work in the Serbian Orthodox Church as presented by the modern Serbian literary language; special attention has been given to the services that are written in 21st century in the process of canonization of the newfound saints of God. On the example of three services (the services devoted to the Saint Peter II Cetin’ski, Rev. Stefanida Skadarska and Bitol’ska, and Rev. Justin the New Serbian) author demonstrate the possibilities of the modern Serbian language. Among the reasons for the transition to the Serbian language in the liturgical texts, the author names, firstly, freshness, originality, artistic expression and the lack of stylization, and secondly, the desire to convey the meaning of the text to the church meeting, as well as to glorify the Serbian saints in the language in which they spoke, wrote and preached. The studied hymnographic texts are based on a deep connection with the heritage of the glorified saints, which manifests itself in quotations and allusions to their texts, the inclusion of their characteristic vocabulary, especially the author’s neologisms. The listed characteristics are style-forming for modern services, and the voice of the saints merges with the “voice” of the Church and its teachings.
Keywords: hymnography in national languages, new Serbian services, lexical borrowings, stylistic features of hymnographic work, “someone else’s word” in the services of saints.
Traditio, traductio, aptatio: Applying the Principles in the Russian Translation of the Roman Missal
The article is devoted to experience of translating the main divine book of Latin rite – the Roman Missal (Missale Romanum) into Russian. Since the second half of the twentieth century, the use of contemporary languages of various peoples in the Liturgy of the Catholic Church has become common practice. “The Roman Catholic Church Missal in Russia” in its full official version was published in 2011, and since then it has been used for the celebration of Mass in Russian both in Russia and in Russian-speaking communities outside the country. The first part of the article deals with the general instructions of the Catholic Church teaching on the translation of liturgical texts into national languages, which come down to three basic principles and are denoted by the triad of Latin terms: traditio (transmission), traductio (translation), aptatio (adaptation). The article then presents the history of the Russian translation of the Missal, a rather lengthy
process that started still before the official reopening of the Catholic Church in Russia in 1991, the process which turned out to be difficult and, at some stages, multidirectional. The third part of the article highlights some questions of a fundamental and practical nature, when the application of the main general translation criteria was not simple and obvious, but required a creative and, to a certain extent, innovative approach, considering the peculiarities of the Russian language, cultural environment and mentality.
Keywords: Latin rite, Roman Missal, translation, liturgical text, Catholic Church in Russia, adaptation, inculturation.
Translations of Divine Services into Modern Languages Interview with Fr Georgy Kochetkov, S. Parenti, E. Velkovska, P. Vassiliadis, A.G. Kravetsky, A.V. Subochev
The theme of the language of worship and liturgical translations in the Russian Orthodox Church started to be intensively discussed in the second half of 19th – early 20th centuries, inter alia in connection with the preparation of the 1917–1918 Local Council. However, the discussion was stopped for the entire period of Soviet power and resumed only in the 90s of the twentieth century. It is important to consider the issue of translating divine services into modern languages in a historical context, taking into consideration the experience of other local churches. It is necessary to discuss theological, philological, cultural and pastoral problems that arise in translating certain texts of divine service; there is also a need for a joint search for ways to resolve them. The question of the language of worship is closely related to the question of the boundaries of the Church assembly, the full responsibility and participation of the laity in the sacraments of the Church, and therefore it is also directly related to the issues of revival and renewal of Church life. The interview includes responses from liturgists, philologists and translators of the divine service, who consider the positive and problematic aspects of this topic using historical examples and modern translation experience.
Keywords: liturgics, language of worship, modern liturgical translations, translation activities of Cyril and Methodius, church assembly, liturgical revival.
Liturgical Renewal Movement in Contemporary Serbia
The article is devoted to the peculiarities of modern worship and an emerging liturgical revival movement in the Serbian Orthodox Church. Among the specifics in the celebration of the Divine Liturgy representative of this renewal movement, the author lists the following: worship with the holy doors open, censing during the Alleluia, preaching after the reading of the Gospel, pronouncing eucharistic prayers in an audible voice, the elimination of the troparion of the Third Hour. Under consideration are such issues as the frequency of communion, the possibility of performing the sacrament of marriage during the Liturgy, and the removal of particles for holy
angels during the prothesis rite. The author concludes that, on the one hand, the liturgical
renewal movement in Serbia reflects the emergence of broader theological formation in the post-Yugoslav Serbian Church. On the other hand, criticism of the liturgical movement is largely due to the fact that Serbian believers have different levels of theological formation and different experience of participating in Church assembly, which is largely due to the specifics of the historical development of the Serbian Church. Thus, liturgical renewal is only part of a larger renewal of Church life, the goal of which is a more complete realization of life in Christ.
Keywords: Serbian Orthodox Church, Divine Liturgy, worship, Liturgical Renewal Movement, Metropolitanate of Karlovci, ecclesial body.
The article raises the question of what the language of worship should be and attempts to identify the basic theological and liturgical criteria that determine the relevance of the language to its task. The author emphasizes that the main task of the divine liturgical language is to connect the congregation of believers with God, even though the best divine liturgical language is unable to denote the divine mysteries in their entirety. The article refers to such important topics as the connection of the liturgical language with other elements of worship and its correlation with the language of Bible translation. According to the author, the liturgical language should be modern, it should be understandable in order to inspire action, but at the same time, unlike the everyday spoken language, it should be more sublime, for which purpose it can rely on contemporary translations of Scripture. The language of worship should help all members of the congregation to participate in prayer, therefore it should make use of different language forms, such as the women’s language, the youth language, the language of the poor and other groups. Apart from that, the language of worship should take into consideration a variety of socio-cultural and geographical contexts. In addition to the words of prayers and sermon, the language of
worship should also include bodily postures, gestures, and liturgical actions. The author of the article takes into account that the language of worship is exposed to such contemporary cultural characteristics as the availability of e-mail, text messages, chats and tweets; however, he insists that language is not an end in itself, but only a means to approach the meeting of justice and mercy that is possible at the eternal divine bosom.
Keywords: liturgics, language of worship, church assembly, sermon, translations of worship.
Report of the Council of the Brotherhood of saints Peter, Alexy, Jonah and Philip of Moscow about the need to translate divine service books into Russian for home use
The published report of the Council of the brotherhood of Sts. Peter, Alexy, Jonah and Philip of Moscow (1909–1918) on the need to translate the liturgical books into Russian for home use was compiled by the Council for consideration at the General meeting of the brotherhood and was intended for making a decision on a petition to the Holy Synod. The document addresses the problem of the Church Slavonic text of the service being misunderstood by the faithful and
suggests measures to remedy this situation. The issue of improving the quality of Church services was one of the most important activities of the brotherhood of the Moscow saints, which set out to help the Church authorities and parish institutions to ensure that the service was performed with due pomp and with the widest possible participation of the laity in reading and singing. Unfortunately, it is not known what the Synod’s reaction to this document was. Nevertheless, this report shows that the translation of the divine service into Russian was recognized in the early 20th century as a pressing problem. The introductory article presents
the main information about the brotherhood of the Moscow Sts. Peter, Alexy, Jonah and Philip, as well as the specific features of creating and discussing the report. This is the first publication of the document.
Keywords: divine service, translation, Church Slavonic language, brotherhood, conciliarity, F. D. Samarin, P. B. Mansurov, reviews by diocesan bishops.
Akathist to St Meletius of Kharkov by martyr Pyotr Grigoriev
The published document, the akathist to St. Meletius, Archbishop of Kharkov and Akhtyr, written by martyr Peter Grigoriev (1895–1937) is for the first time introduced into academic circulation. The work was copied by hand, the exact date of the published manuscript could not be established; most likely it belongs to the third quarter of the 20th century. The special feature of the akathist to St. Meletius is that it is written in Russian language in verse form. The introductory article describes the akathistography in Russian as an important example of liturgical creativity – a stratum of church tradition, which is most subject to change. This was manifested in a special way in the 20th century, when newly written gymnographical works were
not published or subject to church censorship. The article provides biographical information about Fr. Pyotr Grigoriev, the compiler of the published Akathist. Martyr Peter was arrested on the night of October 17–18, 1931 and sent first to the White Sea-Baltic Canal, the “Soslovets” crossing of the Murmansk railway and then to Volgolag. On September 22, 1937 he was sentenced to death by shooting by a special troika at the Department of NKVD of the USSR in the Yaroslavl region; the sentence was executed the next day in the same isolation unit of department III. Martyr Pyor Grigoriev was canonized as a saint of the new martyrs and confessors of Russia by the Bishops’ Council of the Russian Orthodox Church held on August 13–16, 2000.
Keywords: akathist, liturgical creativity, divine service in the 20th century, Russian language in the divine service, new martyrs and confessors of the Russian Church, martyr Pyor Grigoriev.
Jesus’ high priesthood and its superiority over the Levite priesthood is a unique and important theme of Hebrews. The central argument in the discussion about the superiority of Jesus’ high priesthood is the Melchizedekian argument of chapter 7. In this chapter the author uses Gen 14:18–20, Ps 110, and some Jewish traditions about Melchizedek. Some of these texts portray him as a historical figure, while others depict him as an eschatological image. This article investigates the Jewish traditions about Melchizedek from the Second Temple period and explores how they are used in Hebrews. Then, the article shows how Melchizedek’s figure works in the author’s argument about the superiority of Jesus’ high priesthood. It demonstrates that the author of Hebrews is interested in Melchizedek’s figure not only as a real person of the past or the future, but rather more as the likeness of Christ and the unique biblical image of a person who is simultaneously both a king and a high priest. Such a typology plays an important role in the author’s theological chain, which also includes other Old Testament images and characters, working metaphorically and shaping a multifaceted image of Christ as both God and human, priest and sacrifice, messianic king and perfect high priest. Further study of these metaphors in the context of modern metaphor theories can be a productive continuation of this research and can help us better understand the interpretive method of the author of Hebrews.
Keywords: Bible, Hebrews, Melchizedek, Second Temple, Philo, Josephus, Enoch, Qumran typology.
Theology of theological academies and theology of the laity? Book Review: Antonov K. M. (2020). How religion is possible? Philosophy of religion and philosophical problems of theology in Russian religious thought of the 19th – 20th centuries: In 2 v. Moscow : PSTGU Publ. V 1. 605,  p .; V. 2. 366,  p.
Book Review: Manchester L., Sdvizhkova D. (eds.) (2019). Faith and Selfhood in a Changing Society: Autobiography and Orthodoxy in Russia in the late 17th and early 20th centuries: [collection of articles]. Moscow : New literary review. 408 p.