The present issue of the academic periodical of St Philaret’s Christian Orthodox Institute was elaborated by SFI’s Department of Philosophy, Humanities and Natural Sciences. The articles cover issues at the intersection of Christianity and secular culture.
SFI ACADEMIC PERIODICAL “THE LIGHT OF CHRIST ENLIGHTENS ALL”. ISSUE 10
Academic periodical of St Philaret’s Christian Orthodox Institute. Iss. 10. 2014. 172 p.
Philosophy and Metaphysics
An Experience of Secular Metaphysic - Part I: Descartes
The phenomenon of “secular metaphysics” is considered as special entertainment of reason seeking perfect clarity. It is demonstrated, that an attempt to reach the clarity by means of ideal constructing results in the creation of total systems. This is shown by means of analysis of metaphysical system of R. Descartes.
Keywords: metaphysics, ideal constructing, clarity, totality.
Cogito ergo est esse absolutum
Semion Frank considers himself to the tradition of Christian Platonism; he is sure that every true philosophy begins with the mystical experience of the Absolute Unity of being in God. Phylosophy is actually the confession of the past, the try of rational expression of superrational experience. Frank’s consept of the Absolute Unity grew out of his mystical intuition, he felt working on his first book “The Object of Knowledge”. Afterwards almost forty years of his live were devoted to attempts to delve into the opend to him Inknowable. The article traces the basic
milestones of the spiritual path of the great philosopher.
Keywords: Russian religious philosophy, Christian Platonism, mystical intuition, ontological proof of God’s existence, theodicy
Doctor as a hurt Aesculapius
With the assistance of mythological and cultural-historical data the article examines the problem of reflexive selfconsciousness formation. The author emphasizes its tragicalness because it holds in itself the knowledge of the finiteness of a man – his mortality. That is why activity of a doctor – fight with death – is doomed. Tragic collisions of this fact are specified – both social and evident through personal fates of psychiatrists. A term “Psychiatrist cross” is introduced. The author comes to the conclusion that the calling of a doctor is Christian in its essence – to die for somebody else.
Keywords: mythology, opposites, congruence, psyche, evolution, psychiatry.
Biblical Roots of Genetics
The article demonstrates an attempt to elicit Biblical roots of Genetics. For this purpose several scriptural stories, particularly the story of Jacob at the time of his service at Laban’s house, are analyzed from the point of view of modern Genetics and its rules. Also, the author proposes a hypothesis which answers the question of how could it become possible that the discoverer of basic laws of Genetics was not a scientist but an Augustinian who did not possess even a university diploma. The author supposes that Gregor Mendel reproduced the Biblical experiment of Jacob with the only difference in a model object.
Keywords: Genetics, selection, genotype, phenotype, Mendel, Jacob’s sheep, moufflon.
Theological Aspects of Ethics
Special Aspects of Studying and Teaching Church Art in Western Europe and Russia in the XIX and the XX centuries
The article outlines and analyses the complicated process of studying and teaching church art. Many aspects of the process were similar for Europe and Russia, e. g. the history of art being transformed from a confessional science into an independent subject, the establishment of the polysemantic approach to studying it and more focus on the theological meaning of art works.
Keywords: history of art, church archeology, artistic form, theology, teaching.
Place of Artistic Creativity in the life of the Church: the Perspective of the Iconic, Theological and Philosophical Works of Nun Joanna (Reitlinger) (1898–1988)
On the basis of the creative heritage of the nun Joanna (Reitlinger), the article discusses the problem of artistic creativity in the Church: questions of the artistic basis of the iconography, the influence of personal faith and the experience of communion with God on the arts, a link to the artist-icon painter with the revelation about God and man. In connection with the rebirth of the mission and of the worship of the dialogue with the society, restoration of destroyed churches and the construction of new issue of church art turns out to be significant for the church and society.
Keywords: icon painting canon, free painting, creative icon, icon-painter, monkhood, Archpriest Sergius Bulgakov, Maurice Denis.
Theosophic and Anthroposophic Ideas in Wassily Kandinsky’s Aesthetic Theory
The article analyses aesthetic theory of Wassily Kandinsky in order to find out ideas directly or implicitly connected to occult and esoteric systems, especially popular at the times when the theory appeared. Tracing theosophic and anthroposophic ideas in Kandinsky’s theory stems from the fact that all the European occult sciences of that period somehow originated from E. Blavatsky’s theosophy and R. Steiner’s anthroposophy.
Keywords: aesthetic theory, Wassily Kandinsky, abstractionism in art, Blavatsky’s theosophy, Steiner's anthroposophy.
Pedagogical Statement of Freedom Problem and its Classical Solution
The problem of freedom as “the key question of education and moral philosophy”, according to K. D. Ushinsky, is analyzed within the context of modern situation in educational philosophy. The theory of moral education of S. I. Gessen is presented as its classical solution. Neokantian roots of the theory as well as the affinity of Gessen’s viewpoints to another representative of Russian neokantianism M. M. Bakhtin are demonstrated in the article. The author presents deep analysis of the Gessen’s solution with the emphasis on its dialectic and dynamic nature. The article traces the development of the idea of permanent human selftranscendance as a way to exercise freedom in German transcendentalism, existentialism and phenomenology. As a semantic parallel to Gessen’s “applied philosophy” in the field of psychology existential anthropology of V. Frankl is introduced. The author shows how the idea of ontologization of the morality, according to Frankl and Gessen, is linked to the tendency of “dragging” spirituality into a human character in the modern anthropology and pedagogy.
Keywords: pedagogy, morality, existentialism,freedom, autonomy, personality, transcendence.