Boris Talantov and the Brotherhood of Vyatka Christians as an Experience of Church Resistance to Khrushchev’s Persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church
Issue №19, pp. 121–149
The article deals with the ecclesiastical activities undertaken from 1954 to 1971 by Boris Talantov, a layman from the city of Kirov (Vyatka). Boris Talantov was the organiser and inspirer of the brotherhood of Vyatka Christians on the territory of the Kirov diocese. According to the “Regulations of the Brotherhood”, its apologetic, educational and charitable activities were aimed at gathering believers together to fight for their legitimate rights and to protect churches from closing down. Boris Talantov led a petition campaign, wrote open letters to Nikita Khrushchev and Patriarch Alexey I as well as to the editorial boards of various newspapers and magazines. He sharply criticised the position of the Moscow Patriarchate in the midst of Khrushchev’s persecution against the church. Boris Talantov also was the author of a church reform project.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, church resistance, Boris Talantov, brotherhood of Vyatka Christians, protecting churches from closing down, believers’ rights protection, church reform project.
The Fruits of Interfaith Communication under the Metropolitan of Leningrad and Novgorod Nicodemus (Rotov)
Issue №35, pp. 226–247
Metropolitan Nikodemus (Rotov), who headed the Leningrad Diocese in 1963–1978, was at the same time chairman of the Holy Synod Commission on Christian Unity (since August 3, 1963; since May 30, 1972 he headed the Commission on Christian Unity and Interchurch Relations). The Metropolitan made his cathedral city widely open to church delegations, not only for all those from over the Orthodox world, but also for other Christian confessions. In those years, for the sake of establishing and deepening fraternal inter-confessional relations and for
participating in theological interlocutions, Leningrad was visited by Catholic Bishop Johannes Willebrands (Cardinal and Chairman of the Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity since 1969) and Archbishop Martti Simojoki, head of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. By building and strengthening business and personal ties with high hierarchs of different confessions,
Metropolitan Nicodemus sought to get the most out of such contacts for his native Church and for the Leningrad Theological Academy.
Keywords: Leningrad Theological Academy, Metropolitan Nikodemus (Rotov), Cardinal Johannes Willebrands, Archbishop Martti Simojoki, theological interlocutions.
The Old Believer Issue in the Proceedings of the Pre-Conciliar Presence
Issue №27, pp. 34–51
The article outlines the discussion on Old Belief and Edinoverie (uniated part of Old Belief and Russian Church created in 1800) in the VI Department of the Pre-Conciliar Presence in 1906. The projects aimed at drawing together the Edinoverie and the Russian Church are presented. The author describes the Department’s judgments on the urgent need of resolving the issues related to appointing a bishop for Edinoverie parishes and to the opportunity of reversing the curses on the Old Rite. Priest Simeon Shleyev’s position on the missionary significance of Edinoverie is also introduced. As the debates within the Department demonstrated, the Russian Church was not ready to reconcile with the entire Old Believers’ world. However, this discussion marked a new stage in the development of Edinoverie in Russia and determined the agenda of the forthcoming All-Russian Council of the Orthodox Russian Church on the Old Believer issue.
Keywords: Old Belief, Edinoverie, Orthodox Old Believers, Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy, Pre-Conciliar Presence, Fr. Simeon Shleyev, All-Russian Missionary Society.
Conference “The 1666–1667 Councils and their Consequences for Russian church life”
Issue №27, pp. 9–10
Monastery in the World. Fr Alexey Mechyov’s Pastoral Methods
Issue №2, pp. 128–139
Associate Professor, Department of Contemporary Russian History, Historiography and Records Management, Voronezh State University (Voronezh)
Voronezh Community of Archpriest Mitrofan Buchnev
Issue №27, pp. 80–104
The article introduces into academic discourse the history and composition of the women’s religious community created before the revolution in Red Valley village, Zadonsk district, Voronezh province, by Priest Mitrophan Fyodorovich Buchnev whose name is included in the database “New Martyrs, Confessors for Christ who suffered during the persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church in the XX century”. After his conditional conviction in 1920 and his relocation to Voronezh, some members of the community followed him. Soon this association became the centre of attraction for Voronezh believers from different social strata. The life journeys of the community members and of the priest himself are traced on the basis of documentary sources.
Keywords: Voronezh, M. F. Buchnev, Blessed Theoktista, community, chernichki, repression against clergy, concentration camp.
The attitude of the Russian Church Abroad to non-Orthodox Christianity under Metropolitan Filaret (Voznesensky)
Issue №35, pp. 248–269
The article is devoted to the attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCOR) to the Ecumenical movement and non-Orthodox Christianity. Although the ROCOR is often referred to as a structure that did not welcome contacts with non-Orthodox people, this is not really true. Social contacts and theological dialogue took place under metropolitans Anthony (Khrapovitsky) and Anastasy (Gribanovsky). The situation began to change under the third first Hierarch of the ROCOR, Metropolitan Filaret (Voznesensky), when the “zealots” party began to influence the leadership. At the same time, there was also an attitude to ecumenism formed in the ROCOR. According to the official definitions of the ROCOR, ecumenism is a doctrine that denies the existence of the Church and seeks to create it in the future on the basis of existing Christian movements. The tightening of the ROCOR’s position with regard to non-Orthodox Christianity was expressed in the decree of the Bishops’ Council of 1971 on the acceptance of non-Orthodox Christians by the first rank, that is, through baptism. However, this decision met with objections and was often not implemented at local level. Meanwhile, the ROCOR was preparing to anathematize ecumenism. The Bishops’ Council of 1983 decided to condemn ecumenism, and in 1984, ROCOR published the text of the anathema. It implied that the adherents of the “theory” were condemned, as well as those who denied the apparent existence of the Church. The blurred text of the anathema, as well as the dominance of the “zealots”, subsequently gave the ROCOR leadership a reason to criticize the humanitarian ties and theological dialogue acceptable to the Church. All this led to further radicalization of the Russian Church Abroad. However, such ill-considered decisions were very difficult to make. Already under Metropolitan Filaret, a party of hierarchs and clerics was formed, inclined to reconciliation with the local churches and not welcoming the “zealot” policy.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, The World Council of Churches, Ecumenical movement, theological dialogue, Roman Catholic Church, Protestantism, Metropolitan Filaret (Voznesensky), Archimandrite Panteleimon (Metropoulos), hieromonk Seraphim (Rose).
Issues of Family, Religious Marriage and Divorce in the History of the Russian Orthodox Church prior to the 1917–1918 Local Council
Issue №2, pp. 110–127
John Fyodorovich Egorov: Orthodoxy and Living in It
Issue №2, pp. 156–181
Christian vocation and social life: formulation of the problem in the activities of the group of “32” St Petersburg priests
Issue №35, pp. 186–205
The article analyzes the church situation in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century and the first attempts of the Russian Orthodox Church to influence the country’s public life. The focus is on a number of documents, declarations, brochures issued by a group of “32” St Petersburg priests (the Union of church renovation, the Brotherhood of zealots of church renovation) and practical activities of the members of this group in establishing church-public relations. It is concluded that at the beginning of the 20th century the church for the first time begins to perceive society as an independent force located outside the church fence. The condition for a possible dialogue is the active participation of both parties in social construction: ward restructuring church parish, justification of social activity in the prospect of approaching the kingdom of God. The key concepts in the church-public rhetoric at the beginning of the century are the concepts of “the truth of Christ”, “the voice of the Church”. At the height of the revolution of 1905-1906. the 32-x group is trying to become the mouthpiece of the Church’s free voice. They speak out on the issues of the “Black-Hundred” pogroms and State Duma elections. Orientation to new social forces leads the clergy to pose acute political issues, beyond the solution of which the intelligentsia could not conceive social progress. At the same time, the church for the first time formulates the criteria by which the programs of political parties are evaluated, in terms of approaching the ideal of Christian public life.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, the revolution of 1905–1906, the church renovation, a group of “32” St Petersburg priests, social life.
Discussion on Brotherhoods in the Russian Press in 1860s
Issue №21, pp. 23–34
The article considers the course of the discussions on the possibility of reviving Orthodox brotherhoods in Russia, launched on the pages of ecclesiastical and secular newspapers and magazines in 1860 s. The author analyses the articles in the periodicals “Dukh Khristianina” (“The Spirit of the Christian”), “Kiyevskiye Eparkhialniye Vedomosti” (“Kiev Diocesan Journal”), “Den`” (“The Day”) as well as the publications by M.O.Koyalovich, N.S.Leskov, Archpriest Theophanes Lebedintsev, Priest Alexander Gumilevsky. The author highlights the major points of discussion in the first post-reform years, such as the history of brotherhoods in the South-Western Russia, the prospects of reviving brotherhoods within the Synodal system, brotherhoods as church unions and public organisations.
Keywords: Orthodox brotherhoods, the post-reform period, church press, secular press, Leskov, Koyalovich, Lebedintsev.
The Soldiersʼ Revolution of 1917 and Prerequisites of Forming the Mass Society in Russia
Issue №28, pp. 98–116
The article analyses the role of soldiery in the revolutionary events of 1917 in Russia. The mass of soldiery is understood as a social new formation that took shape in Russia by the beginning of 1917 and had a special type of political culture. The author highlights the features of how soldiers perceived political realities and events as well as the motivation of their behaviour. The specific ways of setting and achieving relevant goals for the mass of soldiery are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the formation of a special type of social and political communications that connected the mass of soldiery and Bolshevik organizations in 1917. The prerequisites for a unique way of formation of mass society in Russia are also traced.
Keywords: revolution, political culture, Bolsheviks, workers, peasants, mass of soldiery, mass society.
From Attempts to Restrain the “parish revolution” – to the Mobilization of Parishioners. Parish Issue in the Russian Orthodox Church in 1917–1918
Issue №25, pp. 11–27
The article is devoted to the question of origins of the change of attitude of the church leadership to the problem of the rights and duties of parishioners, which took place between the spring of 1917 and the summer of 1918. The author shows that the “parish revolution” of spring – summer 1917, during which the parishioners took control over the church and parish property and aquired the right to appoint members of the clergy, was initially perceived as a destructive process. The church authorities sought to limit its consequences. However, in the situation of the turn of 1917–1918, with the burst of the mass persecution of clergy and believers by the Soviet regime, it was the laity and their associates that were perceived as a force capable of defending the Church. As a result, by the summer of 1918, the “parish revolution” and its consequences had been legalized. The Bolshevik leadership involuntarily contributed to this, since the Decree on the separation of the Church from the State left room for the legal activities of grassroots religious structures. Significant milestone in the adaptation of the church consciousness to a new reality were the decree of the Patriarch and the Synod of February 28, 1918, and a discussion at the Council of 1917–1918 about the parish property, held in April 1918. All these events created the conditions for the exuberant parish revival of the 1920s, part of which was the flourishing of fraternities, parish unions and other similar organizations.
Keywords: Revolution of 1917, Russian Orthodox Church, Orthodox parish, parish revolution, Church Council of 1917–1918, Decree on the separation of church from state and school from church, lay associations.
The Baltic Orthodox Brotherhood and its Role in the Organization of the Pyukhtitsa Women’s Commune
Issue №39, pp. 210–237
This article, which is primarily based on new archival materials from the depositories of Tartu, St. Petersburg, Tallinn and Riga, is devoted to the previously little studied issue of the role of the Baltic Orthodox Brotherhood of Christ the Saviour and the Protection of the Mother of God (founded in 1882) in the organization of the Pyukhtitsa Women’s Commune of the Dormition (a monastery, since 1893). This monastery in eastern Estonia later became one of the most well-known in the Russian Orthodox Church. The specific activities of the Baltic Brotherhood, which was led by representatives of the capital’s elites, are considered in this article. The Brotherhood mainly built and equipped churches, monasteries and social institutions. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Governor of Estonia, S. Shakhovsky, and his wife E. Shakhovskaya, who played a decisive role in the creation of the Ievven branch of the brotherhood (1887) and the Pyukhtitsa commune (1891) and their associated shelters, hospitals and educational institutions. The article notes the similarity between the goals and objectives (primarily social) of the Baltic brotherhoods (lay organizations) and women’s communes, in that both instances are cases of communities that occupied an intermediate position between the world and the monastery. For some time after 1917, the Ievven branch of the brotherhood played a significant role in the management of up to 13 of the monastery’s different charitable institution under the chairmanship of E. Shakhovskaya, having been transformed in 1919 into the Pyukhtitsa Guardian Brotherhood on the Mount of the Mother of God (Pyukhtitsa na bogoroditskoj gore popechiteljskoe bratstvo).
Keywords: Baltic Orthodox Brotherhood of Christ the Savior and the Protection of the Mother of God; Ievven branch of the Baltic Brotherhood; the spread of Ortho doxy in the Baltics in the second half of the 19th century; Pyukhtitsa Assumption Convent; church charity; the governor of Estonia, Prince S. Shakhovsky; Princess E. Shakhovskaya; Righteous St. John of Kronstadt; Abbess Varvara (Blokhin); Chairman of the Baltic Brotherhood, M. Galkin-Vrasky
Archival Records on the History of Pre-Revolutionary Diocesan Brotherhoods: the Brotherhood of St Basil, Bishop of Ryazan
Issue №22, pp. 40–58
The article reconstructs the history of the diocesan brotherhood existed from 1877 to 1918 in the territory of the Ryazan and Zaraysk diocese. The author bases her study on the documents kept by the Foundation of the Brotherhood of St. Basil, Bishop of Ryazan. The records, numbering 290 and covering all the years of the brotherhood’s existence, are stored at the State Archive of the Ryazan region.
Keywords: Brotherhood of St Basil’s, Bishop of Ryazan, missionary work, Bishop Palladius (Rayev), history of brotherhoods.
Priest Vladimir Vostokov – Member of the White Movement and Founder of the Brotherhood of the Life-Giving Cross
Issue №34, pp. 194–214
The article examines the views and activities of the priest Vladimir Vostokov, who played a prominent role in the social and political life of the White South during the Civil war as the leader of the Brotherhood of the Life-Giving Cross organized by him. The author analyzes the reasons for the transformation of the Brotherhood into an Orthodox right-wing nationalist party, as well as the relationship of the priest Vladimir Vostokov with the Church authorities in the South of Russia, the clergy, the Orthodox community, and right-wing political forces. His controversial, but certainly outstanding personality is considered against the background of political processes that took place during this period. For the first time in historiography, this problem is subjected to a comprehensive study and is considered on the basis of sources based on the documentation of a Special meeting of the Volunteer Army, the Provisional Supreme Church administration, the All-Russian National Center, and memoiristics. The author comes to the conclusion that the extremes of the position of the priest Vladimir Vostokov, the idea of a Jew-Masonic conspiracy that he preached, and the desire to include anti-Semitic statements in the official Church discourse at all costs, were perceived negatively. Therefore, the Brotherhood of the Life-Giving Cross created by him did not receive the support of the highest Church authority of the White South. Having been created initially to protect the faith, if necessary even by force of arms, the brotherhood began to acquire the features of a political organization, and was noticed by the right part of the spectrum of political forces. At the same time, Vostokov’s preaching talent, his fervent struggle for faith and love for the Motherland made him a popular preacher among the people. Perhaps this was facilitated by the everyday anti-Semitism of the Cossacks. Of course, the personality of its founder played a decisive role in the fate of the Brotherhood of the Life-Giving Cross.
Keywords: Orthodox clergy, Civil war, political views, White movement, rightwing parties, nationalism, Brotherhood of the Life-Giving Cross.
The “Non-Payers” Religious Movement in 1860–1880s: life in a sacral dimension
Issue №32, pp. 176–196
This article primarily focuses on the “non-payers” religious movement, which appeared in the Urals in the 1860s. This paper highlights the early period of the “non-payers” history, when the movement, which appeared due to peasants’ conditions of living after their liberation from serfdom, gets religious traits. In this article the mechanism for interaction between material and spiritual factors, which led to emergence and development of religious societies, is described. The work was made on the basis of the archival records which are introduced into the academic circulation for the first time. Special attention is paid to “non-payers” behavioral practices. Their actions and activities are studied in the context of changes of religious beliefs about the world around them. The article concludes that there was a high possibility that socio-econoic issatisfaction in the Russian Empire of the 19th century was supplemented by religious discontent, because cultural standards of the traditional society contributed to predominance of a person’s irrational interpretation of the real world.
Keywords: “non-payers”, sectarianism, Serginsky mining region, people’s religious movements, Peasants’ reform of 1861, eschatology.
Relations between the Church and the Council for the Russian Orthodox Church Affairs in the Tashkent and Central Asian Diocese in 1946–1961
Issue №22, pp. 7–17
The article is focused on the church life in the Tashkent and Central Asian diocese in 1946–1961, namely on how it was influenced by the Council for the Russian Orthodox Church Affairs and its appointed commissioners at the local level. In 1946–1960, when the church was oppressed and later openly persecuted by Soviet power, primarily through the appointed commissioners, the church life in the Tashkent and Central Asian diocese went through the period of revival. This became possible due to the uncompromising ministry of the devotees of faith, their loyalty to God and the firm position of the ruling bishop and the like-minded clergy and laity.
Keywords: Tashkent and Central Asian diocese, church-state relations, Council for the Russian Orthodox Church Affairs, confessors of faith.
“Sparks of Humble Martyrdom”: on the History of the 1920–1930s Moscow Church Circles
Issue №13, pp. 58–70
The article focuses on two significant Moscow church circles that brought together believers (mostly intellectuals) of the 1920 –1930s. At the time when the church was being persecuted by the state, those circles produced a whole host of confessors, who were part of the Maroseika community and the circle of believing intellectuals gathered around the Holy Trinity St Sergius Lavra. The latest research has revealed that the two spiritual groups were closely associated with each other and formed one tighly-knit circle of people sharing a spiritual connection. It appears that the historical magnitude of Frs Alexei and Sergius Mechev for the XX century Russian Orthodox Church is yet to be fully appreciated and requires further in-depth study.
Keywords: profession of faith, community, arrest, Maroseika, the Holy Trinity St Sergius Lavra.
St Philaret of Moscow and the Spiritual Enlightenment of Russia
Issue №2, pp 9–27
The Notions of Personhood and Community in the Pastoral Practices of Bishop Makariy (Opotsky)
Issue №13, pp. 97–108
The article considers the correlation between the notions of personhood and community in the writings and pastoral practices of Bishop Makariy (Opotsky), who founded a number of Orthodox brotherhoods across Russia at different times between 1908 and 1941. The research was made possible by the publication of Bishop Makariy’s addresses to the 1914 Diocesan Missionary Conference and by having access to one of his spiritual daughters’ personal archive where she stored his numerous talks and sermons. In them, he had processed the notions of both
personhood and community.
Keywords: personhood, community, brotherhood, unity, church.
“The Secret Friends of God”: Some Notes on the International and Ecumenical Aspects of the Activity of Brotherhoods in Pre-Revolutionary Russia
Issue №21, pp. 57–66
The history of the Russian Student Christian movement (RSСM), a large non-governmental Christian organization in the emigration after the revolution, is well-known. There was still an interesting pre-revolutionary period when, for example, the movement contacted with S.N. Bulgakov. RSСM leaders strived to involve into cooperation Orthodox students, professors and priests. The heads of the movement paid special attention to those professors who had the most authority with students. Those who were ready to cooperate with RSCM, were called by its leader Baron Paul Nikolay as “secret friends of God”.
Keywords: Russian Student Christian Movement, Christianity, Russian religious revival, ecumenism, brotherhoods, the Secret Friends of God, Paul Nikolay, John Mott.
Russia Abroad and its Ecclesiastical and Historical Significance
Issue №34, pp. 215–243
The article is devoted to the analysis of the ecclesiastical and historical significance of Russia Abroad. It shows a conceptual difference between Russia Abroad and the Russians oversees, the concepts which are often mistakenly used as synonyms. Russia Abroad was a unique phenomenon in the World History of the 20th century. The activities of the Russian Council of Ambassadors, which did not recognize the power of the Bolsheviks assigned to Paris, the main center of the intellectual forces of Russian exiles, the role of the capital of Russia Abroad. The article shows the role the League of Nations and especially the role of F. Nansen and K. N. Gulkevich in solving the problems of Russian refugees, exiles and emigrants. Official representation in the League of Nations of the Council of ambassadors and other Russian public organizations and the acquisition of their internationally recognized Nansen passport meant de facto recognition of Russia Abroad by the States of the League of Nations. Being a temporary State organization without its own territory, Russia Abroad had its own (Nansen’s) passport and its own anthem, memorable dates and holidays. Only in Russia Abroad did the Russian culture of the Silver age continue to develop. Special attention in the article is given to the role of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia Abroad and to the relations between its leaders abroad, – Metropolitan Evlogy (Georgievsky) and Metropolitan Antony (Khrapovitsky). Exiled Russian philosophers connected their main hope for spiritual overcoming of the political split between Russians outside and inside Russia with the Russian Orthodox Church abroad. Despite its positive role, the Russian Orthodox Church abroad, unfortunately, could not become the main connecting and organizing force of Russia Abroad, largely due to the rivalry of hierarchs. Russia Abroad was unable to overcome its internal political disunity and create a unified will. The second and third waves, as well as the new generations of the first wave, could not breathe strength into fading away Russia Abroad that was fading away. Russia Abroad disappeared along with the collapse of the Communist system, which was facilitated by its opposition and struggle.
So far, only the tip of the huge iceberg of Russia Abroad has been explored. Historians are still only on the way to this world-historical phenomenon and the development of its religious and philosophical, literary, scientific, technical, artistic and architectural heritage. Special attention is paid to the scientific and practical value, significance and usefulness of the research of scientific problems of Russia Abroad in order to solve the problems of migrants in modern Russia.
Keywords: Russia Abroad, the Russians oversees, the Russian Orthodox Church, the League of Nations, F. Nansen, K. N. Gulkevich, Metropolitan Evlogy (Georgievsky), Metropolitan Antony (Khrapovitsky), the Russian Foreign Congress of 1926.
The Life and Work of Priestly Martyr Anatoly Sekundov (1897–1937)
Issue №2, pp. 182–198
Archpriest Nikolay Butkin’s Spiritual Heritage and Ministry
Issue №22, pp. 59–84
The article, based on published sources and archival records, examines the ministry and spiritual heritage of Archpriest Nikolay Butkin, the Ural uncanonised new martyr. The author focuses on the issues of church life revival such as restoring the priestly ministry as profession of faith, building the church life in the spirit of brotherhood; granting the inner freedom to the church in relations with the state, overcoming the separateness between clergy and laity as well as between church and society. The article outlines the main stages of Archpriest Nikolay Butkin’s life and ministry. His texts, published in church press and those recently discovered in archives, are also briefly reviewed.
Keywords: Archpriest Nikolay Butkin, Shadrinsk, Saviour’s Transfiguration Cathedral, Simeon Brotherhood, the novel “The Winegrowers”, church life revival, history of Orthodoxy in the Urals, the XX century history of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Protopresbyter Vitaly Borovoy’s Church Ministry in the Context of the 1930–1950s Historical Events
Issue №13, pp. 109–121
Protopresbyter Vitaly Borovoy is known as an “academician of church experience”. He was a symbolic figure in the history of the XX century church and is remembered as a theologian, academic, seasoned diplomat, spiritual director, preacher and teacher. The article deals with the main areas of Protopresb. Vitaly Borovoy’s ministry in the first 30 years of his church life and service (1929–1959). This period is considered to be of particular interest as the time when Fr Vitaly’s core beliefs and values were formed and his views on the church and the civil society took shape. Those years were equally formative for him as a spiritual director, teacher, church academic and diplomat.
Keywords: education, ministry, church, tradition, sermon, pastoral ministry, theology, unity.
Independent scholar (St Petersburg)
Anna Akhmatova’s Funeral within the church life of the 1960s in Leningrad
Issue №27, pp. 151–167
The funeral service for A.A. Akhmatova was organised in Leningrad by her son L.N. Gumilev with the help of Priest Vasily Butylo. Initially, it was planned to hold the funeral ceremony at the Transfiguration Cathedral. However, after L.N. Gumilev and Fr. Vasily had visited Vicar Bishop of Tikhvin Philaret (Vakhromeyev) St Nicholas Cathedral of the Epiphany was chosen. The service was officiated by Archpriest Alexander Medvedsky, the only clergyman of the city awarded with the Patriarch’s Cross, together with Deacon Pyotr Kolosov. G.S. Zharinov, Leningrad Plenipotentiary on Religious Affairs, forbid to let more than one priest and a big church choir take part in the service as well as to light up large chandeliers. The two last prohibitions were ignored. The involvement of Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov) of Leningrad and Ladoga in realization of the most worthy funeral ceremony is discussed in the article.
Keywords: A. A. Akhmatova, L. N. Gumilev, Leningrad, St Nicholas Cathedral of the Epiphany, Bishop Philaret (Vakhromeyev), Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov).
Nikolay Neplyuyev’s Views in the Context of Neo-Slavophilism in the Second Half of the XIX – the Early XX Century
Issue №21, pp. 35–53
The article concerns Nikolay Neplyuyev’s (1851–1908) project of the Labour Brotherhood in the context of the Neo-Slavophiles’ history in the second half of the XIX – the early XX century. Neplyuyev, a Christian socialist, aimed at solving the pressing socioeconomic, religious and ethical issues of the time. This implied a radical reorganisation of the social, economic and spiritual structure of the society. Neplyuyev called the path towards his social ideal a “peaceful progress” or a “peaceful upheaval”. These notions could be regarded as a counterpart of the Tolstoyan idea of nonviolent revolution emerged in the early XX century.
Keywords: Neo-Slavophilism, communitarian movement, peaceful revolution, Nikolay Neplyuyev (1851–1908), The Holy Cross Labour Brotherhood, Christian socialism.
Russian Student Cristian Movement Conferences as а Manifestation of Orthodox Church Sobornost
Issue №13, pp. 71–85
The article presents the history of RSCM as an example of sobornost revival in the early XX century Orthodox Church. The First RSCM conference in Prerov defined the framework for all RSCM activities and further conferences. General and local RSCM conferences were marked with openly shared church fellowship and unity between laymen and the clergy. This unity was built up gradually through common effort and manifested itself in several ways: in personal fellowship between priests, professors and young RSCM members, through lectures and seminars, which revealed the depths of Orthodox spirituality, and in the Orthodox Liturgy as the focal point of sobornost. Celebrating communion at the end of these conferenсe-councils was their highest spiritual point.
Keywords: Russian Student Cristian Movement, Prerov conference, liturgical revival, spiritual education, sobornost.
Mother Maria (Skobtsova) in RSCM: Her Way to Monastic Ministry
Issue №17, pp. 96–119
Mother Maria (born Elizaveta Yuryevna Skobtsova) took monastic vows in 1932. In previous years, she was an active member of the Russian Student Christian Movement (RSCM). Being of pivotal importance in terms of understanding her way towards monastic ministry, this period of her life still remains understudied. This article focuses on E. Skobtsova’s participation in RSCM conferences and in the Circle of Russian Studies in 1926–1930 as well as on her work as secretary of RSCM in France in 1929–1932.
Keywords: Mother Maria (Skobtsova), Russian Student Christian Movement, the Circle of Russian Studies, the League of Orthodox Culture.
The Life Story of Priestly Martyr Anatoly Sekundov
Issue №2, pp. 140–155
Nikolay Nikolaevitch Neplyuev’s Idea of Creating a Pan-Russian Brotherhood
Issue №13, pp. 43–57
The article outlines the concept of the Pan-Russian Brotherhood that the renowned early XX century Russian Christian luminary Nikolay Nikolaevich Neplyuev (1851–1908) promoted in his writings and when speaking to the public. The Brotherhood’s main objective would be to consolidate and channel any healthy social effort in Russia towards fostering unity and creativity in the context of stronger revolutionary sentiments. However, the project was never carried out. The article’s author considers the distinctive characteristics N. N. Neplyuev attributed to the Pan-Russian Brotherhood and gives an account of the attempts he made at its foundation.
Keywords: Nikolay Neplyuev, Pan-Russian Brotherhood, Orthodox Christianity, penance.
Problems of Exploring the Phenomenon of “Brotherhood” in Contemporary Historical Studies
Issue №21, pp. 13–22
The author focuses on to what extent the actual historical studies cover the activities of Orthodox brotherhoods that arose in the Russian Empire since the second half of the XIX century. The article highlights the controversial and understudied issues in the given field of historical studies. The promising areas for further re- search are also outlined.
Keywords: historiography, history of brotherhoods, Orthodox brotherhoods, church history, West-Russian brotherhood, brotherhoods in the Russian Empire.
“This is My Body which is Broken for You”: the Pastoral Ministry of Priestly Martyr Dmitry Klepinin (1904–1943)
Issue №2, pp. 199–218
1917 in the History of the Petrograd Synodal Printing House
Issue №29, pp. 80–93
The article studies the situation in the Petrograd Synodal Printing House after the February revolution of 1917. To protect the workers’ rights, a committee of elders was formed in the printing house. Instead of the assigned functions of a labour union organization, the committee started establishing control over production and finances without any consent of the administration. This disorganised the production process and led to the breakdown of the financial and economic part. On the order of the Minister of Confessions A. V. Kartashev of 4 August 1917, the Commission on printing was formed. It suggested measures for managing the catastrophic situation in the Synodal printing house. However, these measures could have been implemented only if the general political situation in the country had changed.
Keywords: Local Council, Holy Synod, Synodal Printing House, publishing, Commission on printing, Committee of elders, disorganization of production
Overseeing the preaching ministry in the Russian Church in the late Synodal period (as exemplified by the Samara Diocese)
Issue №33, pp. 144–161
The article is devoted to the studying of such a specific function of the diocesan authority as the management in the field of preaching in the Russian Church of the end of the Synodal period. The censor functions of various parts of the diocesan administration are considered herein according the materials of the Samara Diocese.
The situation with the preaching in the Samara Diocese of the late XIX – early XX centuries was extremely unsatisfactory, which is not least explained by the cumbersome bureaucratic system of censoring sermons that existed then. The system of governance in the establishment of preaching was even more bureaucratic in the diocese than required by the Charter of spiritual consistories. The censoring of “next-in-turn” sermons, associated with the passage of several instances (a rural dean, a special county censor), took a long time, while being not a very effective means. Often the requirements of the diocesan authorities were obviously impossible to implement.
The considered sources allow us to state the growing wave of discontent of the clergy towards the diocesan censorship in the early twentieth century. Despite the very heavy fines, a number of priests essentially ignored the orders of the consistory. Awareness of the problem was among the ranks priests and the ruling bishops. However, the centralized system of church management and the lack of skill to take initiative delayed the resolution of this issue. In the end, the situation changed only in 1910, when the appointment of two mandatory sermons was
canceled by a decree of the consistory. The “next-in-turn” preaching was preserved only in the cathedrals, where all the priests of the provincial capital delivered homilies. Thus, the practice was approximated closer to those provisions that are spelled out in the Charter of spiritual consistories.
The polemics of the early twentieth century revealed the problems of preaching and fetched to the preparation for active discussions on this question in the precouncil instances and after that at the Local Council of 1917–1918.
Keywords: history of the Russian Orthodox Church, Synodal period, diocesan censorship, consistory, county censor, rural dean, diocesan congress.
Letter to the Deans from the Council of United Parishes of Moscow
Issue №25, pp. 91–98
“The Letter to the Deans” from the Council of United Parishes of Moscow is introduced for the first time into scientific use. The document provides new information on the activities of the Council, in particular, on its s trive to expand its activities over the deaneries of the Moscow province. The Council of United Parishes of Moscow, established on 30 January 1918, became a new form of administrating parish life on the basis of sobornost principle. The Council brought together representatives of the Moscow diocese clergy and laity, elected at parish and deanery meetings. Its major aims were to protect the Church from the Bolsheviks’ offense and to organise the church life under heavy circumstances. The document is kept in one of the 1919–1929 investigation dossiers at the Moscow provincial court and contains the investigator’s notes.
Keywords: Council of United Parishes, A. D. Samarin, church, state, administration, parish association, church life in Moscow, church life in Moscow Province, 1918.
Some Aspects of a Church Problem of False Priesthood on the Example of the Situation on the Temporary Occupied North-West Territories of Russia in 1941–1944
Issue №8, pp. 63–83
The problem of false priesthood and self sanсtification in the church history became especially acute in times of social unrest, coups d’état and wars. During German occupation due to its strict church-canonical position Pskov Orthodox mission facilitated spiritual renaissance in many respects. At the same time according to memories of the witnesses and other documents there were cases of false priesthood. The article analyses causes, classification and spiritual consequences of this phenomenon.
Keywords: false priesthood, self sanctificators, Pskov mission, Baltic exarchate, sacraments, church renaissance.
Archimandrite Tavrion (Batozsky): On the Issue of Canonisation
Issue №27, pp. 134–150
Archimandrite Tavrion (Batozsky) (1898–1978) was a monastic clergyman of the Russian Orthodox Church whose years of service fell within the period of persecution against the church in the USSR. The holiness of his life was primarily manifested in the traditional forms of his liturgical, preaching and pastoral ministry. Along with this, his life and ministry had several features characteristic of professing faith and building church life during the Soviet period. The article aims at highlighting the unique aspects of Archimandrite Tavrion’s service as the signs of his holiness in terms of the “new martyrdom and confession” in the XX century. The study is based on various sources such as the publications and transcripts of Archimandrite Tavrion’s sermons, his personal memories and letters from exile to his flock, the memories and testimonies of his spiritual children, archive records (investigation files, etc.).
Keywords: Archimandrite Tavrion (Batozsky), new martyrs and confessors of the XX century, canonisation, criteria of canonisation, holiness.
Pre-Revolutionary Sobriety Societies and Brotherhoods in Russia. Three Paradoxes
Issue №21, pp. 67–75
The article describes the arising of sobriety societies in Russia aimed at helping their members overcome alcohol addiction. The author analyses the causes of this phenomenon and the specific features that make these societies different from the associations which called themselves brotherhoods. At that time there were both minor brotherhoods with members providing personal support for each other and thousands of associations engaged in various social activities. The author draws attention to the paradoxes associated with the arising of sobriety societies, with the change of their status as well as with the consequences of their functioning as church-state institutions in the context of the state anti-alcohol policy.
Keywords: sobriety societies, sobriety brotherhoods, buy-out system, church parish.
Vice-Rector for Theological Researches, Saint Petersburg Orthodox Theological Academy (St Petersburg)
Brotherhood at Parish or Parish at Brotherhood? On the History of the Russian-Estonian Orthodox Brotherhood Named after the Holy Hieromartyr Isidore of Yuriev in Saint Petersburg
Issue №27, pp. 65–79
The Brotherhood named after the holy hieromartyr Isidore of Yuriev was established in 1898 in Saint Petersburg at the Estonian parish, immediately after the final canonization of the saint. The new brotherhood became a kind of “cast” of the Orthodox Baltic Brotherhood, founded by M. Galkin-Vrasky, although the latter’s objectives were markedly different. The immediate goal of creating the brotherhood was to build an Estonian Orthodox church in the capital and to get church life for Orthodox Estonians on the right track. In a fairly short time, the parish house was built at the expense of the brotherhood, which organized various social activities by having opened a school, a hospitage, a workhouse, a printing house and a library with a reading room. However, due to the rigid connection with the parish, both structurally and organizationally, the brotherhood was to share its destiny. The active life of the brotherhood and the parish began to fade away in 1915 because of the new diocese-scale cares undertaken by Archpriest Paul Kulbush, the brotherhood’s organizer, builder and rector of St. Isidore church (the future hieromartyr Platon, Bishop of Revel). The year 1917 undermined even more significantly the activities of the brotherhood. At first, Kulbush’s departure to the Revel chair, then the outflow of former parishioners to Estonia, the economic crisis, the separation the school from the church forced to give up almost all social projects. By the beginning of 1918, the church nominally continued to be listed as the parish of the Estonian Orthodox brotherhood, but the brotherhood itself soon receded in memory.
Keywords: Orthodox brotherhood, Orthodox Estonians, St Isidore of Yuriev, Paul Kulbush, Platon of Revel, St Isidor church, Orthodox parish, Orthodoxy in St Petersburg.
Rapprochement of the Russian Church Abroad with the Old Style Movement during Metropolitan Filaret’s (Voznesensky) life
Issue №38, pp. 160–179
The article is devoted to the history of rapprochement and rupture of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCA) and the Greek old-style movement during the life of Metropolitan Philaret (Voznesensky). Being a supporter of the isolation of the ROCA and keeping alive traditions, he actually renounced unity with the world Orthodoxy, preferring communication with the Greek old-style structures, as the most “steadfast” in matters of faith. The leadership began to make statements about the Church Abroad as a “little island” in the middle of a general “apostasy”. The voices calling on the church leadership to abandon such ideas were not heard. The negative attitude towards the new calendar manifested itself in the condemnation of the Bulgarian parishes of the ROCA, as well as in the refusal to accept the position of St John (Maximovitch), who wanted to create the “universal path” of the Russian church emigration and to be tolerant towards traditions and rites. In 1970, the Abroad Synod recognized one of the branches of the Greek old-style movement, the “Florinit”. In 1971, another branch, the “Matthew’s”, was recognized. At the same time, the possibility of recognition of the latter branch was discussed at the Cathedral level. The problem was that the “Matthew’s” hierarchy began with only one bishop. Soon, however, the old-style structures began to drag the Church Abroad into their conflicts, as well as demand a final separation from world Orthodoxy. The latter was unacceptable for the ROCA, which led to a break with the Greek old-age churches in 1975–1976.
Keywords: theology, church history, Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Old-Style Movement, Julian Calendar, New Julian Calendar, Metropolitan Filaret (Voznesensky), St John (Maximovitch), Archbishop Anthony (Bartoshevitch), Bishop Gregory (Grabbe).
The Beginning of “Spiritual Spring” or an Ascent to Calvary? (the 1917 Problems in the Periodical Press of the Department Military Clergy)
Issue №25, pp. 28–42
The article considers the problems of church life in 1917 covered in the journals of the Military Clergy department. Chaplains were the most educated and progressive part of Russian clergy. Therefore, their opinion deserves particular attention. Alongside this, Protopresbyter G. Shavelsky, the head of military clergy, allowed other authors to remark on relevant topics. Among these authors were such outstanding people as Bishop Andrey (Uhtomsky), Saint Priests and martyrs Nikolay (Dobronravov) and John Artbolevsky, philosopher B. Zenkovsky and others. The authors of the journal analysed the reasons of decline of the church’ influence on people and offered the ways of solving the arisen problems. The special attention was paid to Moscow Council and the issue of restoring the Patriarchate institution.
Keywords: Orthodox Russian Church, Holy Synod, 1917–1918 Moscow Council, Russian Provisional Government, Patriarchate institution.
Leading Research Associate, V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow)
Addressing the Old Believers’ Experience in the Discussion of Church Reforms of Worship at the turn of the XX century
Issue №27, pp. 52–64
The article deals with cases of the Russian Church’s recourse to the Old Believer experience in the XIX and XX centuries, primarily in matters related to worship and correction of liturgical books. It considers the language archaization program by N. Ilminsky, the church calendar archaization program by N. Nikolsky, the procedure of canonization, the introduction of new types of service and a number of other innovations aimed at the experience of Old Believers. It is shown that the part of the Russian society that had adopted the reforms of Patriarch Nikon saw Old Believers as custodians of the ancient tradition and turned to their experience in addressing specific issues of church life.
Keywords: Russian Church history, Old Belief, church reforms, worship, church singing, Church Slavonic, patriarchate, canonization.
Professor, Paris-Sorbonne University (Paris)
On the Textual History of the Book of Conversations by Archpriest Avvakum
Issue №27, pp. 11–20
The article discusses the Book of Conversations, one of the lifetime collections of the writings by Archpriest Avvakum, compiled by the author himself. In default of a scholarly publication of the entire text, many questions remain open, such as establishing the dates of each conversation and of the collection as a whole. Analysing the new version of the first conversation, preserved in the manuscript from E.V. Barsov’s collection (the Russian State Library), makes it possible to identify the fragments of the text remaining unpublished up until now. These permit to take a fresh look at some episodes of persecution of early Old Believers.
Keywords: Book of Conversations, Old Believers, Archpriest Avvakum, Old Russian literature, Old Believers martyrologies.
On the Grounds of Christian Unity
Issue №26, pp. 158–171
The article examines the theological views of Protopresbyter Vitaly Borovoy on the issue of Christian unity. Over a number of years, he represented the Russian Orthodox Church in the World Council of Churches. Fr Vitaly also was an observer from the Russian Orthodox Church at the Second Vatican Council. The article is based on his published texts as well as on the manuscripts of his papers delivered at theological conferences in the 1980s–1990s. Fr. Vitaly’s views on Christian unity can be characterised by the rootedness in the Russian religious and philosophical thought of the XIX – early XX centuries, by his aspiration to renewing witness, to keeping the continuity of the Tradition of the Church in a creative way, to contributing to a constructive inter-Christian dialogue and to restoring unity by practical efforts.
Keywords: inter-Christian dialogue, unity, witness, service, confession, Tradition of the Church.
The Nativity of the Lord Parish Brotherhood in Saint Petersburg (1863–1871)
Issue №2, pp. 82–96
Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov) of Leningrad and Novgorod’s Contribution to the Initiative by the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) to Establish Dialogue with Non-Orthodox Churches
Issue №13, pp. 122–134
The article explores the work of Nikodim (Rotov), Metropolitan of Leningrad and Novgorod, who grew up in the Soviet Union only to become the most influential church leader of his time. He was appointed Chairman of the Department for External Church Relations in July 1960, during one of the hardest stretches in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate). At the age of the antireligious campaign for the abolition of the church and all church institutions, strict control by the Soviet state did not prevent Metropolitan Nikodim from establishing and fostering relationships with the Roman Catholic Church and numerous protestant churches. He was also able to facilitate the consilidation of the Russian Church’s position in the USSR.
Keywords: dialogue with non-Orthodox churches, Soviet state control, external relations, the Roman Catholic Church, protestant churches.
The History of the Curse on the Minim, a Jewish Prayer against Christians
Issue №18, pp. 65–77
The article analyses the scholarly debate on the origins of the curse on the minim and on whether it was uttered against Judeo-Christians. The curse on the minim is traditionally believed to have appeared in the late I century against Judeo- Christians. This presumption is based on the Talmud text of the V century and on the writings of two Church Fathers of the IV–V centuries. To whom was the term “minim” referred in the II–III centuries? In the course of several centuries, no Christian writers, except St Epiphanius and St Jerome who lived in Palestine among Jews in the late IV–V centuries, mentioned this prayer in their writings. It is possible that only in the Byzantine period the curse on the minim in Palestine started being uttered directly against Judeo-Christians, named nozerim.
Keywords: minim, nozerim, prayer against Christians, Jewish-Christian relations, the Early Church, rabbinate, synagogue.
Robespierre and Church: Notes on the Subject
Issue №18, pp. 87–97
The article outlines the evolution of Robespierre’s beliefs about Christianity and church within the context of Enlightenment ideas, Rousseauism and the French Revolution. The author highlights their relation to philosophical currents of the period in discussion and analyzes the creation of a new religious cult, nationalization and political subordination of the church. The paper substantiates Robespierre’s religious criticism of revolutionary violence, terror, and atheistic ideology. A set of political speeches delivered by Robespierre in 1789–1794 was the source for this article.
Keywords: Maximilien Robespierre, revolution, reign of terror, National Constituent Assembly, National Convention, Christianity, church, Enlightenment, Cult of the Supreme Being.
Moral Content of the Right of Shelter and Impunity within Patriarchal Courts in Byzantium
Issue №18, pp. 78–86
The article examines the moral content of the right of shelter and impunity possessed by churches (jus asyli) within patriarchal courts in Byzantium. The author focuses on the history of this phenomenon and on the arguments on why criminal cases had to be heard in patriarchal court during the period under consideration. The empirical evidence is presented by quotations from Byzantine legal monuments confirming the author’s theoretical arguments. This article was written on the basis of works of pre-revolutionary scholars in church history and canon law.
Keywords: the right of shelter and impunity in churches, jus asyli, patriarchal court, penance, punishment.
Russian Church Emigration and the 1917–1918 Moscow Local Council: Adopting and Carrying out Its Decisions in the 1920s–1930s
Issue №26, pp. 88–110
In the early 1920s, Russian church communities in Europe found themselves in a quite extraordinary situation, requiring a complete reorganisation of their structures, both at the diocesan and parish levels. Having kept alive their memory of the 1917–1918 Moscow Council, many ecclesiastical figures in emigration viewed its decisions as reliable guidelines for creating a new church structure. Later on, however, the jurisdictional divisions followed, highlighting the two opposite attitudes to the Council s heritage. Some considered it necessary to implement its decisions, whereas others preferred to change or even abolish the norms elaborated at the Council. This article explores how the Moscow Council served as a starting point in organising various ecclesiastical jurisdictions in emigration in the 1920s–1930s and how these institutions carried out or not its decisions.
Keywords: 1917–1918 Moscow Council, church life in emigration, Russian emigration in Europe, Russian church abroad, Metropolitan Evloghios.
The Orthodox Brotherhoods’ Activities in the Vologda Diocese in the Late XIX – Early XX Century
Issue №21, pp. 101–135
The article analyses the Orthodox brotherhoods’ activities in the Vologda diocese in the late XIX – early XX century. The author suggests their classification through identifying diocesan, parish brotherhoods and those under theological schools. The brotherhoods’ composition, management body and financial resources are described as well as the four main areas of their activities: religious and educational work, mission, charity, and church life arrangement. When assessing the brotherhoods’activities, the author points out their strong dependence on the state authorities and the lack of freedom. However, it has to be admitted that the brotherhoods contributed to the study of the Old Belief, to the development of the Orthodox culture, education and charity in the diocese.
Keywords: Orthodox brotherhoods, Vologda diocese, parish brotherhoods, diocesan brotherhoods, religious organisations, missionary work, church charity.
On Church Governance of Northern Orthodox Parishes in Pskov Region during the German occupation and within the “New Course”
Issue №17, pp. 43–78
This article strives to make a comparison study on principles and practical peculiarities of church governance within Pskov diocese during the German occupation and in the early post-war years. This period is characterised by such common features as the absence of ruling bishop, the incoordinate diocesan administration, the numerical lack of parish clergy, the high activism of church laity, and the interference of secular authorities in internal church issues. The German occupation authorities meddled in church issues from pragmatic considerations of their military campaign with USSR. The Soviet government influenced busily the diocese’s church life following the objectives of the conceptual Orthodox change in Soviet Russia.
Keywords: church governance, church council, rector, ruling bishop, the Pskov Orthodox Mission, the commissioner of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church, “New Course”.
The Holy Protection Orthodox Brotherhood in Erzhepol, Polotsk and Vitebsk Diocese, in the Early XX Century
Issue №21, pp. 136–150
The article describes the parish brotherhood in Erzhepol, Polotsk and Vitebsk Diocese. Priest Kirill Zaits, a local parish rector and founder of the brotherhood, encountered the problem that in the 1860 s most of his parishioners had previously converted from Catholicism to Orthodoxy without proper catechesis. This caused both the local peasants’ formalistic attitude towards the church life and their large-scale reconversion from Orthodoxy to Catholicism. To cope with the crisis, in 1900 the priest opened a parish school for girls. Later on, in 1903, with the bishop’s blessing he founded a parish brotherhood, aimed primarily at supporting the parish school and its students. From the outset, the Erzhepol parish brotherhood engaged into educational, enlightening and charitable work, not restricting itself by the denominational criterion but assisting people of all religions in the neighbourhood. Since priest Kirill Zaits was appointed as diocesan missionary in 1911 and moved to Vitebsk, the brotherhood gradually faded away.
Keywords: Erzhepol Orthodox Brotherhood, Polotsk and Vitebsk Diocese, parish school for girls, priest Kirill Zaits, Catholicism propaganda.
The Point of Bifurcation: The Orthodox Church in Soviet Russia at the Historic Turning Point of the 1940s (as Experienced in the Northwestern Regions of the Country)
Issue №5, pp. 9–35
The aim of the present sketch is to demythologize the so-called “new course” of Stalin’s Church policies in the period from 1943 to 1949. Drawing on archival research as well as on published sources, the author has made use of the scientific concept of synergetics in seeking to determine the turning point in the history of the Orthodox Church in Soviet Russia. The point of bifurcation, the event that effected a fundamental change in the subsequent historical development of the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) was the Council of Bishops of September 8, 1943 and the second restoration of the Patriarchate in Russia that it sanctioned. From that moment on not only outward Church revival started but also Stalin and the Soviet leadership began to actively involve the Church into their internal and external plans.
Keywords: point of bifurcation, synergetics, fluctuation, Procurator-General of the Holy Synod, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Council for Russian Orthodox Church Affairs, Commissioner of the Council for Russian Orthodox Church Affairs.
Archpriest Livery Voronov: materials for the biography
Issue №38, pp. 124–159
The article is devoted to little known episodes from the life and ministry of Professor-Archpriest Livery Voronov. The first part of the study refers to the time when Voronov began his church service on the occupied territory of the Leningrad Region, part of the Pskov Mission. His church and missionary work ended in Tallinn in October of 1944 with his arrest, prosecution and trial. The accused Voronov, pleaded not guilty on charges of anti-Soviet activities and cooperation with the German secret services but was nonetheless sentenced to 15 years’ imprisonment in a correction labour camp. After his release Fr. Livery returned to church ministry and spiritual education. During the difficult time of the anti-religious campaign, he completed his studies and in 1961 started teaching at the Leningrad Theological Academy. At the same time, he began working in the Department of External Church Relations under Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov). In the early 1970s a series of events occurred which led to the dismissal of Fr. Livery from the Department of External Church Relations and the Educational Committee of the Russian Orthodox Church (the Moscow Patriarchate) and then to a strained relationship with the Publishing Department of the Moscow Patriarchate. As far as possible he found support in these difficulties from Metropolitan Nicodemus. At the same time, Archpriest Liverius was consistent and principled in his ministry in the field of spiritual education and ecclesiastical studies. Until recently, Professor-Archpriest Livery Voronov maintained his loyalty to the academy and his love for his mother Ekaterina Vassianovna. He left a good memory with his students and pupils, and served much to ensure that even under Soviet conditions the Theological Academy of the Northern Capital was the best spiritual school of the Russian Orthodox Church (the Moscow Patriarchate).
Keywords: Professor-Archpriest Livery Voronov, Pskov Orthodox Mission, Leningrad Theological Academy, Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov), Department of External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate.
The issue of defining the “parish” concept as discussed prior to and during the 1917–1918 Local Council
Issue №13, pp. 30–40
The article analyses the search for the scope of the “parish” concept as part of the discussions prior to and during the 1917–1918 Local Council. The debators considered this a search for a way of expressing the spirit of sobornost. For instance, in the beginning of the XX century, a parish could also be called “domestic church”, “community”, “establishment”, “fundamental group unit of the church society”, “patronage” and “brotherhood”. The most heated discussion unfolded between those who attempted to define the parish using the concept “domestic church” (meaning a congregation of believers) and “God-ascertained establishment”, where the parishioners and the clergy were considered secondary to the parish church. The outcome of the discussions prior to and during the 1917–1918 Local Council was a favoured idea, namely a model where a parish community was associated with a parish church.
Keywords: parish, community, patronage, brotherhood, παροικία, sobornost, parish “models”, discussion, Pre-Council Committee, 1917–1918 Local Council.
Josephites and Followers of Metropolitan Kirill (Smirnov) Speaking on Sobornost in Church Administration and on the Eucharistic unity of the Russian Church
Issue №19, pp. 103–120
The article attempts to analyse and to compare the views of representatives of the two main branches of the rightist church opposition, Josephites’ and the followers of the Metropolitan Kirill (Smirnov), on the church policy of Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky). The author demonstrates what exactly they considered as violations of the sobornost principle in Metropolitan Sergius’ church administration and why they broke Eucharistic communion with him.
Keywords: Metropolitan Sergius’ 1927 Declaration, rightist church opposition, anti-Sergianists movement, the ‘Josephites’, followers of Metropolitan Kirill (Smirnov), Eucharistic unity, sobornost.
Church-State Relations in the Byzantine Empire According to the Scriptores post Theophanem (IX–X centuries)
Issue №33, pp. 118–143
This article considers Byzantine church-state relations during the second period of iconoclasm and the beginning of the Macedonian Dynasty, based on materials from the Scriptores post Theophanem. During this period, government authorities twice changed the official position on the veneration of icons, first in support of the iconoclasts, and later in support of the iconodules.
The ideal model of church-state relations, which the Scriptores post Theophanem presupposes, largely corresponds to the symphonic relationship between church and state described in the Isagoge. In reality, those in power, striving to preserve unity within the empire, dictated their own will concerning questions of faith, insensitively meddling in internal church affairs. Sources do not show a significant difference between the ways in which the state handled the church during the periods of iconoclasm and iconodulism. Moreover, according to the Scriptores post Theophanem, persecution of those outside the faith was more cruel and widespread during the iconodule period.
Early in the rule of the Macedonian Dynasty, the difficulties in the church-state interrelationship pointed out in this work led not to a restoration of symphony between church and state, but to a strengthening of the emperor’s power and a weakening of the patriarch’s power.
Keywords: Byzantium, church-state relations, symphony, iconoclasm, Scriptores post Theophanem, Theophanes Continuatus, Leo V, Patriarch Photius, Empress Theodora, Emperor Basil I, Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, Macedonian Dynasty.
Repressions of the Russian Student Christian Movement in Estonia in 1940–1941
Issue №13, pp. 86-–94
The Soviet repressions against Orthodox members of the Russian Student Christian Movement in Estonia in 1940–1941 are the subject of the article. The main phases of the repressions against the clergy and laity are illustrated by the actual life stories of three Movement members. The main body of research is based on files from the Estonian State Archive. The article is published as part of the series of articles and documentaries that tell the life stories of RSCM members in the XX century Baltic States. The series reopens the debate on the mechanism of Soviet repressions against Orthodox believers.
Keywords: Soviet repressions, RSCM, Estonia, Orthodox Church.
Rostislav Romanovich Lozinsky’s Biography and Doctoral Thesis “Pastor in Parish”
Issue №2, pp. 219–234
Ss Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood in Ostroh, Founded by A. D. Bludova, as an Example of an Orthodox Brotherhood in Russia in the Second Half of the XIX Century
Issue №21, pp. 87–100
The article focuses on the activities of the Ss Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood, founded by Countess A.D. Bludova in 1865 in Ostroh. It existed until its extermination in 1933 by the Soviet authorities. On the one hand, this brotherhood was quite typical among other Orthodox brotherhoods of the 1860s, widely engaged into education, charity and arranging the church life. On the other hand, it was an example of the fellowship of people united by the Orthodox faith and selflessly devoted to serving the Russian Orthodox Church.
Keywords: Orthodox church brotherhood, Ss. Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood in Ostroh, Countess A. D. Bludova, Count Bludov’s school for girls.
Educational Activity of the “Christian Commonwealth of Student Youth” in St Petersburg (1903–1916)
Issue №17, pp. 25–40
The Christian Commonwealth of Student Youth is a unique phenomenon in the life of the Orthodox Church in the early ХХ century. The article considers the prerequisites for the Commonwealth to emerge, its goals and objectives, its membership as well as its internal life and activity. Special attention is given to the efforts of helping youth in living out the Christian vocation through attaining the Christian worldview, spiritual communion and practical enchurchment of life. The analysis of the Commonwealth’s life and work led to the conclusion about the uniqueness of these ways of the holistic Christian education of young students.
Keywords: Christian Commonwealth of Student Youth, education, Christian worldview, student youth, Society for religious and moral enlightenment in the spirit of the Orthodox Church, Archpriest Pavel Lakhostsky, enchurchment of youth.
Lecturer in History, “Career” Secondary School (Moscow)
Religious Persecution of Old Believers as a Factor of the Internal Colonisation of Russia in Populists’ View
Issue №27, pp. 21–33
This article considers the reform populists’ views on the issue of religious persecution of Old Believers as a factor having contributed to the colonisation of marginal territories of the Russian State in the late XVII – first half XVIII centuries. The author comes to the conclusion that populists considered colonisation as a part of the general problem of social progress in the country. The exploration of the new territories by Old Believers was regarded by populists as distributing in Russia social forms of activity that denied state centralisation and based in non- bourgeois principles.
Keywords: populism, Old Believers, religious persecution, colonisation, I. I. Kablits,Y. V. Abramov.
Ivan Churikov and His Movement of Nondrinkers
Issue №17, pp. 81–95
The article outlines the personality of Ivan Churikov, the founder of the movement of nondrinkers, and the early years of this initiative. The author focuses on some issues in the relationship of Ivan Churikov and his followers with official representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Keywords: Churikov, Churikov’s followers, alcoholism, sobriety society.
The Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood’s Martyrdom and Profession of Faith (according to archival records of the 1930s)
Issue №25, pp. 43–75
One of the most significant brotherhoods in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church was the Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood, which existed from 1918 to 1932 in St Petersburg (Leningrad). Founded under the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, the Brotherhood brought together both the inhabitants of the monastery and the most devoted to the Church lay people of Russia’s “Northern Capital”. In the years of anti-religious persecution, the Brotherhood was the spiritual core of the diocese life. Its members were engaged into various activities such as worship, spiritual education, charity, theological research, etc. In 1932 the Unified State Political Department (OGPU) put an end to the Brotherhood. Nevertheless, most of its members showed courage and fortitude under investigation and in detention. The Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood left on the Russian Church history an imprint visible over the entire XX century. No other public church organization brought up so many bishops. Several of the Brotherhood members were canonised.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood, antichurch repression, martyrdom, profession of faith.
Spiritual Daughters of St John of Kronstadt as New Martyrs and Confessors
Issue №2, pp. 28–46
Rural Parish Clergy in the Age of the XIX century “Great Reforms”
Issue №2, pp. 97–109
Embodying the Idea of Sobornost within the 1917–1918 All-Russian Local Council
Issue №26, pp. 111–129
The article is published on the occasion of the centennial anniversary of the 1917– 1918 Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church. Its history and proceedings have been thoroughly studied by Russian and foreign church historians. The understanding of the current state of the Russian Church and the hopes for the revival of church life in the XXI century depend on how the experience and the decisions of the Council have been learnt and assimilated. The article points out the factors in church history that determined the uniqueness and significance of the Council. Particular attention is paid to the issue of electing the patriarch, including the procedure. The author represents the positions of both supporters and opponents of reestablishing the patriarchate. The Local Council not only restored the institution of patriarchate but also proposed a system of church administration based on the principles of sobornost. This system endured a very short time and afterwards it has never been implemented elsewhere. The author sees the significance of the Moscow Council in strengthening the idea of sobornost in the believers’ minds, far from being reduced to convening periodic church meetings of different levels but rather consisting in the active participation in the life of the Church of all its members – laity, clergy and episcopate.
Keywords: the 1917–1918 Council, patriarchate in Russia, sobornost of the Church, Pre-Council Presence, Pre-Council Board, Higher Church Administration.
Clergy and Laity in Parish Life of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Early XX century (based on “Diocesan Bishops on Church Reform”)
Issue №2, pp. 69–81
Transformation in Understanding Schisms and in Overcoming Them among Christians of the Latin Tradition
Issue №2, pp. 47–67
Issue №35, pp. 12–39
After the February Revolution, the Russian Orthodox Church sought to reconstitute itself to allow broader participation of its clergy and laity in order to fulfill the aspirations of a Church reform movement that had begun around 1900. At the same time, the Church sought to avoid losing its traditional institutional authority in the eyes of believers. To accomplish this, broader participation had to be grounded in sobornost’ – a church ethos of traditional Orthodox catholicity or conciliarism – while avoiding political, secular, and revolutionary influences.
Drawing on many church voices from 1917–1918, this paper sketches the efforts and ultimate success that the Russian Church achieved in reestablishing sobornost’ as its organizational and spiritual foundation. Specifically, it reveals how a revitalized diocesan church press, freed from pre-revolutionary censorship, expressed the widespread hopes that a conciliar church could be
established through active participation of the clergy and laity, and ultimately through the convening of the long-anticipated All-Russian Church Council. Revolution in the church threatened the authority of the Holy Synod and the Preconciliar Committee that planned the Church Council. However, a significant yet relatively unknown episode – the August 1917 elections to the Council’s Presidium – as well as the writings of Sobor members themselves demonstrate how the Council succeeded in institutionalizing sobornost’ at the Council. Although
this quality of sobornost’ expressed “unity in multiplicity,” it was neither quantitative nor geographical, and did not reflect class, estate, or political distinctions. Instead, it expressed a wholeness and communion of ideas that still allowed for vigorous debate.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, All-Russian Church Council of 1917– 1918, sobornost’, Russian Revolution of 1917, religion, church reform, Provisional Government.
Theology education reform proposals at the turn of the XX century based on the analysis of “Diocesan Bishops on Church Reform”
Issue №13, pp. 11–29
The author of the article makes an attempt at systematising proposals for reforming college- and university-level theology education. “Diocesan Bishops on Church Reform” was published in 1906 in St Petersburg, ahead of the reform discussion at the 1917–1918 Local Council. When the Bolsheviks came to power, theology schools faced an uncertain future, meaning that theology education entered the Soviet era unreformed. Following the 1994 Bishops’ Council, the Russian Orthodox Church reopened the discussion on the subject of reforming theology education. “Diocesan Bishops on Church Reform” is a valuable source, as it reflects the full range of reform programmes existing at the time.
Keywords: Diocesan Bishops on Church Reform, theology education reform, theology school regulations, 1917–1918 Local Council.
Minor Orthodox Brotherhoods in Arkhangelsk Governorate in the Late 1890 s – Mid 1910 s as an Example of Social Ministry of the Church
Issue №21, pp. 76–84
The article focuses on the one of the understudied episodes in the history of the Arkhangelsk and Kholmogory diocese, namely on the activities of the Orthodox parish brotherhoods, which existed at the turn of the XX century. Through parish brotherhoods, some Orthodox clergymen and the most devoted lay people met the challenges of the modernization age. Facing the stratification of society, rapid urbanization of the predominantly agricultural Russian North, propaganda led by radical political parties, social diseases such as alcoholism and moral decadency, the best members of the church were willing to help their neighbours both spiritually, through prayer and exhortations, and financially. Thus, parish and sobriety brotherhoods were born in the Russian North: in Arkhangelsk and provincial cities (Kholmogory) as well as in large villages such as Ust-Tsilma, Izhma, Kekhta etc.
Keywords: parish brotherhoods, Orthodoxy in the Russian North.
Orthodox parishes in the XIX century Polish Kingdom (Case study: Radom Governorate)
Issue №13, pp. 137–147
The article analyses activities of the Orthodox parishes located in the Radom Governorate of the Polish Kingdom in the XIX – beginning of the XX. The article outlines a hypothesis explaining why Orthodox churches were built in areas populated exclusively by Roman Catholic Poles and Jews. Parish activities were examined in their various aspects: what churches were built, when and why they were built, what priests served in parishes, what they did and what cemeteries existed at the parishes.
Keywords: Poland, parishes, priests, Radom Governorate, XIX century.
Church Life in the Displaced Persons Camps in Western Europe from 1945 to 1952
Issue №22, pp. 18–39
The article explores the depth and diversity of church life at the displaced persons (DP) camps in Western Europe from 1945 to 1952. The chronological framework is determined by the period of existence of the DP camps in Western Europe, whereas the geographical scope is limited to the British and American occupation zones in Austria and Germany – territories comprised by the Berlin and Germany diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad.
Keywords: displaced persons, DP camps, Ostarbeiters, anti-Soviet formations, repatriation, Schleissheim, Fischbeck, Parsch, Bishop John (Garklavs) of Riga, Bishop Nathaniel (Lvov).
Man in Secular and Church History Studies: Seminar held by the Church History Department of St. Philaret’s Christian Orthodox Institute
Issue №17, pp. 120–141
The participants in the seminar consider from different perspectives the issue of man in secular and church history. Yulia Balakshina focuses on the new approaches to the role of person in history in the age of “big narratives” collapsing. Grigory Goutner analyses Heidegger’s concept of correlation between man and history. Vitaly Cherkasov addresses the philosophical understanding of man and history in Karl Jaspers’ works. The final presentation by the Rev. Prof. Georgy Kochetkov opens new theological approaches to this issue. The participants set their sights on the strategies of personal standing tall as well as on the practices by which people make themselves personalities, despite the pressure of the totalitarian states in the XXth century.
Keywords: history, metahistory, man, person.
SFI Publications on Church History
Issue №2, pp. 235–236
The Second Restoration of the Patriarchate in the Russian Orthodox Church (1943). Materials from a Roundtable Discussion of the Church History Department of St Philaret’s Institute
Issue №33, pp. 162–186
The second restoration of the Patriarchate was one of the key events in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church in the XX century. The facts surrounding this event have already been fairly well studied, though a discussion of the motives and driving forces, possible alternative courses for the developments of events and, most importantly, the fruits of this joint church-state project, are still very relevant. The participants of our roundtable discussion in honour of
the 75th anniversary of the restoration of the patriarchate discussed a number of particular questions. Did the leadership of the Moscow Patriarchate of the ROC really have a choice in the autumn of 1943, when Stalin declared his desire to restore the status and structure of the church in the USSR as quickly as possible? Who needed a church renaissance more – the Moscow Patriarchate or Stalin himself? The key issue our roundtable participants found themselves dealing with was the question of what was gained and what was lost by the two
parties as a result of this “union”. What price was paid for the restoration of the patriarchate in the Russian church? What compromises did Soviet authorities and the leadership of the Moscow Patriarchate – and, as a result, all bishops and clergymen – have to make? Our roundtable participants come to the conclusion that internal church unity was lost in favour of the external appearance of wellbeing, after 1943. As a result, lack of trust arose between various church diocese, clergymen and laity – all of whom became progressively alienated from each other. The church’s “ecclesial model” changed entirely, and a systemic crisis lay within the very foundation of the new model.
Keywords: Second restoration of the patriarchate, Stalin’s “new course” for policy on religion, Patriarch Sergius of Moscow, Council for Russian Ortho dox Church Affairs, Archiepiscopal Council of 8 September, 1943, 1927 Declaration on Recognition of the Soviet Regime, Project for Orthodox Unity.