Liturgics and Sacramentology
Representation of Church Gathering in the Anointing of the Sick Ordinances (as Exemplified by Today’s Practice in the Russian and Romanian Orthodox Churches)
Выпуск №19, pp. 49-58
The article addresses the current practice of administering the anointing of the sick in the Russian and Romanian Orthodox Churches. The author pays special attention to the fact that the meaning of this sacrament in the church people’s mentality was distorted, largely due to the loss of the interrelation between Eucharist and anointing of the sick. As a result, the individualistic, magical and consumerist attitudes towards this sacrament get widespread, producing a shift in emphasis from the church gathering to the substance of the sacrament. The liturgical sources suggest that without a church gathering the anointing of the sick, as well as the other sacraments, loses its initial meaning.
Keywords: anointing of the sick, church gathering, history of worship, the Russian Orthodox Church, the Romanian Orthodox Church, liturgical sources, today’s practice.
Elements of Worship for Catechumens
Выпуск №3, pp. 111 – 122
Specific Aspects of Celebrating Divine Services in the Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood
Выпуск №25, pp. 76–90
The article addresses the specific features of celebrating divine services in the Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood. The examination of the rites used in the Brotherhood in comparison with the Typicon makes it possible to identify the elements of worship practice, different from the established practice of celebrating divine services in the Russian Orthodox Church at the time when the Brotherhood was created. The correspondence of its members with their spiritual leaders was a key source for research. The analysis of these letters elucidated the peculiarities of prayer in the Brotherhood, including the practice of involving its members in daily cycle services and the Divine Liturgy.
Keywords: Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood, daily cycle services, liturgy, rite, Typicon, Studios Typicon.
The Emergence and Development of Christian Funeral Rites in the Byzantine Empire in the X–XII Centuries
Выпуск №24, pp. 46–60
The article analyses the structure of the Byzantine funeral rites in the X–XII centuries and explores the thematic heterogeneity of their earliest elements, namely prayers, biblical readings, and hymnography. The exploration of the funeral rites from the X–XII centuries allows to identify which of their earliest elements were omitted from liturgical practices over time. The authors study the prayers corresponding to the categories of the deceased, as well as the lectionary of the funeral rites within the specified period.
Keywords: liturgics, euchologion, hymnography, rite, funerals.
Liturgical Reading of the Holy Scripture prior to the 5th century
Выпуск №3, pp. 123 – 129
The Issue of Liturgical Language
Выпуск №3, pp. 38 – 49
Chrismation (Liturgical Sacrament of Life of Man and the Church in the Holy Spirit) in Mystagogical Part of Catechesis
Выпуск №7, pp. 9 – 27
The sacrament of Chrismation needs to be considered in close relation with the sacraments of Repentance (confession) and Baptism into Christ, which are united in the greater sacrament of Enlightenment, i. e. entering, becoming part of the Church. The sacrament of Chrismation holds a special place in this list having to do with the reception of the gift of life in the Holy Spirit. This sacrament is a testimony to the prophetic nature of Christianity and the messianic status of Christians. The present article also analyses the historic and liturgical as well as the canonical aspects of the sacrament of Chrismation, in particular the rites of receiving apostates and the heterodox into the Orthodox Church.
Keywords: Chrismation, sacrament, rites of reception into Orthodoxy.
Sacraments of Pre-baptismal Repentance (Confession) and Baptism: Attempt at Introduction Thereof in Mystagogical Cycle of Contemporary Catechesis
Выпуск №6, pp. 9 – 28
As part of the mystagogical cycle of catechesis when the meaning of the sacrament of enlightenment is being explained in accordance with the patristic tradition it is desirable to point out that pre-baptismal repentance (confession) is seen as a sacramental pre-requisite of entering the Christian church in a proper way. The sacramental expression of this entrance is the unity of the sacraments of baptism, chrismation, and the first communion at the Eucharist. Pre-baptismal repentance as a rule constitutes a process of some duration involving a conversion of a person, i. e. a return from life in accordance with the logic of this world to his/her Heavenly Father. A renewal of life and a willingness to follow the example of Christ become the basis for ‘baptism into Christ’ and open to the newly baptized the gracious way of further sanctification and transformation of his/her life in the Church and in the world.
Keywords: mystagogy, pre-baptismal repentance/confession, baptism, enlightenment.
The Sacrament of the Life of Man and Church in the Light of Divinity – the Sacrament of Enlightening, or Baptism in the Broad and Full Sense of the Word
Выпуск №3, pp. 9 – 24
The Rites on the Eighth Day after Baptism and their History in Church Practice
Выпуск №19, pp. 9-25
The present liturgical study analyses the rites administered to the newly baptised on the eighth day after their baptism. The author inquires into the origin of the rites and their sequence, structure and composition. The rites are considered in terms of actions and prayers as the final phase of the sacraments of baptism and chrismation and as a spiritual stage of the neophyte’s entry into the Church. Their textual correlation to the ancient Christian sources is also investigated. Taking into account the relevance of these rites today, particular attention is paid to the participation of the church gathering and of the newly baptised.
Keywords: baptism, washing off the Holy Chrism, seal, tonsure, eighth day, chrismation.
Special Aspects of Deaconesses’ Ministry in the Context of Their Liturgical Ordination
Выпуск №12, pp. 83–102
The article analyses various liturgical practices for ordination of deaconesses. Analysing the content and ritual aspects of these ordination practices is aimed at identifying the ministries delivered by deaconesses who were ordained using different practices at different times across Eastern and Western Christian churches. Structural and content analysis of ordination practices along with analysis of their ritual aspects highlight several ministries varying in their specific aspects and focus from one church to another depending on the historical era.
Keywords: deaconesses, ministry, ordination, chirotesy, chirotony, catechesis, monasticism, virgins, widows.
The Formation of the Eucharistic Epiclesis. Early Anaphoras
Выпуск №3, pp. 147 – 162
Выпуск №33, pp. 37–45
This essay examines R. F. Taft’s role in the papal decision to recognize the Addai and Mari Anaphora a true eucharistic prayer, but even more so the pros and cons of this decision. The main obstacle was the position that exactly the Lord’s words “This is my body” and “This is my blood” are the sacramental “form” of the Eucharist. Yet, R. F. Taft showed that the (Roman) Catholic teaching does not mean that the transformation of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ takes place exactly when these words are pronounced. It is more in line with tradition to hold that the transformation of the eucharistic gifts takes place because Christ himself pronounced these words on Holy Thursday and because, during the anaphora, prayers of thanksgiving, epiclesis and offering express the faith that the gifts are really transformed into Christ present in the sacrament.
Keywords: Liturgy, Eucharist, sanctification, Christian unity, Assyrian church.
Personal Prayer Rule in the Liturgical Practice of the Russian Orthodox Church
Выпуск №12, pp. 103–126
The subject of the article is the personal prayer rule (the ordinance of morning and evening prayers as given in prayer books) and the history of its origin. The author attempts to analyse the personal prayer rule in its structure, body, type and the content of component prayers, and to juxtapose daily personal prayer and communal worship. The research was aimed at identifying the place of the personal prayer rule in the Russian Orthodox Church’s daily practice and considering the individual (private) and the church-wide aspects of a personal prayer practice.
Keywords: personal prayer rule, daily prayer, communal and private worship.
Liturgical Actions within the Process of Initiating Catechumens into the Church in the III–VI Centuries
Выпуск №19, pp. 26-48
In the III–VI centuries, from the moment of admission to the catechumenate till the end of the Bright Week, every significant order of service was accompanied by liturgical actions. In total, 48 different liturgical actions were identified. According to the correlation between the significance of an action and its liturgical text, these actions can be grouped into four categories: independent, equivalent to the accompanying prayers, auxiliary, and technical ones. In various local traditions and orders of service one and the same action can refer to different groups. The presence of such actions in orders of service impelled catechumens to stay sober and to see the connection between the learning and corporality.
Keywords: liturgical actions, liturgical gestures, catechesis, corporality, worship, III–VI centuries.
Excommunication from the Eucharist and the Evolution of Penitential Discipline in the Orthodox Church
Выпуск №3, pp. 163 – 175
The Cathedral Rite of Constantinople: Evolution of a Local Tradition
Выпуск №33, pp. 73–99
This article studies the evolution of the Liturgy of the Hours at Constantinople after the ninth century, when not only monastic churches of the city, but also secular churches followed the liturgical rite referred to as “hagiopolitis”. Only the Cathedral was left using the rite appropriately called “ekklisiastis”. The article also analyzes particular forms of “bi-ritualism” between these two liturgical systems, with the tendency to conserve the “ekklisiastes” rite during the most important times of the liturgical year. Contrary to what was previously believed on the subject, the eleventh century was not the zenith of the cathedral tradition of Constantinople, but rather an age of decadence and abandonement.
Keywords: worship, rite, Constantinople, typos, Lectionary, Euchologion, Psalter, Praxapostolos.
Aspects of Meaning in Apotaxis and Syntaxis
Выпуск №12, pp. 127–147
The article examines the subject matter of apotaxis and syntaxis. The three pivotal aspects of meaning in apotaxis and syntaxis, as based on the analysis of works by ancient catechists, Teachers of the Church and XIX–XX century researchers, are: 1) confirmation of the catechumen’s repentance and life transformation, both of which are prerequisite to baptism; 2) the last exorcism, which is carried out by the catechumen; 3) taking vows of loyalty to God, the breaking of which annuls the baptism.
Keywords: apotaxis and syntaxis, catechesis, baptism, pre-baptism repentance, exorcism, baptismal vows.
The Rite of Initiation of Catechumens
Выпуск №3, pp. 98 – 110
“Vom Geist der Liturgie” of Romano Guardini – the most significant book of the liturgical movement in Germany
Выпуск №33, pp. 9–27
The article is a brief summary of “Vom Geist der Liturgie” – the most significant book of the liturgical movement in Germany written by a priest, theologian and philosopher Romano Guardini. The article presents a history of the text, its key ideas, composition and style. While writing a book, which at first was addressed to the educated priests and laity from the circle of Maria Laach’ abbot Ildefons Herwegen, the author sought to describe liturgy not as a set of regulations but rather as of an objective form of prayer coming from the source of Christian tradition, thus encouraging the readers to the conscious participation in the liturgical prayer. In the concluding part it is argued that the questions raised in Guardini’s book are still important: anthropological crisis, awakening of spiritual experience, liturgical education, capability of a modern man to perform a liturgical act.
Keywords: liturgical movement, Romano Guardini, “Vom Geist der Liturgie”, Maria Laach, “Liturgiewissenschaft”, the category of opposition, liturgical act.
Is the Liturgy Described in the Mystagogia of Maximus Confessor Byzantine, Palestinian, or Neither?
Выпуск №8, pp. 9 – 62
This article was written in response to the shock waves caused in Byzantine liturgiology by the suggestion of Prof. Joseph Patrich of the Department of Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem that the Mystagogy of Maximus Confessor may be commenting not on the Byzantine Liturgy, as hitherto always presumed, but on the hagiopolite liturgy of Palestine, where we now know Maximus was born and entered monasticism. Through a careful review of the facts of Maximus’ Vita with its many geographical displacements, and a comparative analysis of his Mystagogy with the eucharistic liturgies of the Byzantine and hagiopolite traditions, this study has advanced suasive (if not definitive) arguments in favor of continuing to consider Maximus’ Mystagogy a Byzantine liturgical commentary. The article was originally published in: BBGG. 2011. S. III. N 8. P. 223–270.
Keywords: St. Maximus Confessor, Mystagogia, Vita, the Byzantine Divine Liturgy, the Bematikion chant, the Bema, the Great Entrance, the Introit.
On Baptising “Weird-Looking Newborns”: Issues Related to Children with Severe Pathology according to the Priest’s Service Book by Metropolitan Peter (Mogila) and the Current Church Practice
Выпуск №24, pp. 61–71
The article analyses the explanatory notes “On Infant Baptism” and “On Baptising Weird-Looking Newborns” in the Priest’s Service Book by Metropolitan Peter (Mogila). On the one hand, these arguments clearly indicate the meaning of baptism has been distorted from the original understanding and perceived as a magical action to secure a favorable fate for a non-viable baby in the afterlife. On the other hand, the question arises with no decisive answer yet: how can the church bear witness to the human dignity of children with severe malformations.
Keywords: baptismal rite, Metropolitan Peter (Mogila), infant baptism, severe malformations.
Some Old Testament and Early Christian Sources on the Rite of the Lifting of the Panagia
Выпуск №3, pp. 176 – 184