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Academic Periodical

The Quarterly Journal of St. Philaret’s Institute

Liturgics and Sacramentology

Elena-Alina Patrakova
Representation of Church Gathering in the Anointing of the Sick Ordinances (as Exemplified by Today’s Practice in the Russian and Romanian Orthodox Churches) 
Issue №19, pp. 49–58
The article addresses the current practice of administering the anointing of the sick in the Russian and Romanian Orthodox Churches. The author pays special attention to the fact that the meaning of this sacrament in the church people’s mentality was distorted, largely due to the loss of the interrelation between Eucharist and anointing of the sick. As a result, the individualistic, magical and consumerist attitudes towards this sacrament get widespread, producing a shift in emphasis from the church gathering to the substance of the sacrament. The liturgical sources suggest that without a church gathering the anointing of the sick, as well as the other sacraments, loses its initial meaning. 
Keywords: anointing of the sick, church gathering, history of worship, the Russian Orthodox Church, the Romanian Orthodox Church, liturgical sources, today’s practice. 
Basilius Jacobus (Bert) Groen, Doctor of Theology, professor emeritus of liturgical studies and sacramental theology, University of Graz (Graz, Austria)
Fitting Liturgical Language
Issue №36, pp. 157–169
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.36.4.006
The article raises the question of what the language of worship should be and attempts to identify the basic theological and liturgical criteria that determine the relevance of the language to its task. The author emphasizes that the main task of the divine liturgical language is to connect the congregation of believers with God, even though the best divine liturgical language is unable to denote the divine mysteries in their entirety. The article refers to such important topics as the connection of the liturgical language with other elements of worship and its correlation with the language of Bible translation. According to the author, the liturgical language should be modern, it should be understandable in order to inspire action, but at the same time, unlike the everyday spoken language, it should be more sublime, for which purpose it can rely on contemporary translations of Scripture. The language of worship should help all members of the congregation to participate in prayer, therefore it should make use of different language forms, such as the women’s language, the youth language, the language of the poor and other groups. Apart from that, the language of worship should take into consideration a variety of socio-cultural and geographical contexts. In addition to the words of prayers and sermon, the language of 
worship should also include bodily postures, gestures, and liturgical actions. The author of the article takes into account that the language of worship is exposed to such contemporary cultural characteristics as the availability of e-mail, text messages, chats and tweets; however, he insists that language is not an end in itself, but only a means to approach the meeting of justice and mercy that is possible at the eternal divine bosom.
Keywords: liturgics, language of worship, church assembly, sermon, translations of worship.
Yulia Balakshina
Elements of Worship for Catechumens
Issue №3, pp. 111–122 
Zoya Dashevskaya, Dean of the School of Theology, SFI (Moscow)
Yulia Shtonda, Postgraduate Student, Voronezh State University (Voronezh) 

The Emergence and Development of Christian Funeral Rites in the Byzantine Empire in the X–XII Centuries

Issue №24, pp. 46–60
The article analyses the structure of the Byzantine funeral rites in the X–XII centuries and explores the thematic heterogeneity of their earliest elements, namely prayers, biblical readings, and hymnography. The exploration of the funeral rites from the X–XII centuries allows to identify which of their earliest elements were omitted from liturgical practices over time. The authors study the prayers corresponding to the categories of the deceased, as well as the lectionary of the funeral rites within the specified period.
Keywords: liturgics, euchologion, hymnography, rite, funerals.
Zoya Dashevskaya, Dean, School of Theology, SFI (Moscow)
Church Gathering Represented in Liturgical Actions, Prayers and Interpretations of the Eucharist
Issue №29, pp. 19–34
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2019.29.25878
The article focuses on the theological and liturgical aspects of the reality described by the syntagm “church gathering”. It is expressed in the key points of the order of Eucharist, namely in liturgical prayers and actions as well as in liturgical interpretations. The author considers the so-called “soft points”, a term coined by Archimandrite Robert (Taft), as the most relevant ones for identifying the qualitative features of the liturgical gathering, which were subject at the same time to the greatest reduction.
Keywords: church gathering, euchologion, anaphora, liturgy, liturgical actions
Zoya Dashevskaya, Dean, School of Theology, SFI (Moscow)
Maria Fedenko, B.A. in Theology, SFI (St Petersburg)

Specific Aspects of Celebrating Divine Services in the Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood

Issue №25, pp. 76–90
The article addresses the specific features of celebrating divine services in the Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood. The examination of the rites used in the Brotherhood in comparison with the Typicon makes it possible to identify the elements of worship practice, different from the established practice of celebrating divine services in the Russian Orthodox Church at the time when the Brotherhood was created. The correspondence of its members with their spiritual leaders was a key source for research. The analysis of these letters elucidated the peculiarities of prayer in the Brotherhood, including the practice of involving its members in daily cycle services and the Divine Liturgy.
Keywords: Alexander Nevsky Brotherhood, daily cycle services, liturgy, rite, Typicon, Studios Typicon.
Zoya Dashevskaya
Kiss of Peace
Issue №3, pp. 130–146 
Bishop Nikolai Dubinin, Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of the Mother of God 
(Roman Catholic Church) (Moscow)
Traditio, traductio, aptatio: Applying the Principles in the Russian Translation of the Roman Missal
Issue №36, pp. 80–99
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.36.4.003
The article is devoted to experience of translating the main divine book of Latin rite – the Roman Missal (Missale Romanum) into Russian. Since the second half of the twentieth century, the use of contemporary languages of various peoples in the Liturgy of the Catholic Church has become common practice. “The Roman Catholic Church Missal in Russia” in its full official version was published in 2011, and since then it has been used for the celebration of Mass in Russian both in Russia and in Russian-speaking communities outside the country. The first part of the article deals with the general instructions of the Catholic Church teaching on the translation of liturgical texts into national languages, which come down to three basic principles and are denoted by the triad of Latin terms: traditio (transmission), traductio (translation), aptatio (adaptation). The article then presents the history of the Russian translation of the Missal, a rather lengthy 
process that started still before the official reopening of the Catholic Church in Russia in 1991, the process which turned out to be difficult and, at some stages, multidirectional. The third part of the article highlights some questions of a fundamental and practical nature, when the application of the main general translation criteria was not simple and obvious, but required a creative and, to a certain extent, innovative approach, considering the peculiarities of the Russian language, cultural environment and mentality.
Keywords: Latin rite, Roman Missal, translation, liturgical text, Catholic Church in Russia, adaptation, inculturation.
Deacon Vasily (Karl Christian) Felmy, Doctor of Theology, Professor in Ordinary, Department of the History and Theology of the Christian East, University of Erlangen (Erlangen)
The Validity of Sacraments in the Churches Separated from Orthodoxy
Issue №29, pp. 11–18
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2019.29.25794 
The article deals with the issue of recognising in the Orthodox churches the validity of the sacraments administered in the non-Orthodox churches and communities. Various local Orthodox traditions, including theological and other reasons of recognising some of non-Orthodox sacraments, are briefly reviewed. In the author’s opinion, the existing vast diversity of practices of recognising non-Orthodox sacraments requires greater harmonisation of theological, canonical, pastoral and other arguments, including situational ones, for elaborating a more unified and coherent position of Orthodoxy on this issue.
Keywords: theology, ecclesiology, church sacraments, the validity of sacraments
Oleg Glagolev
Liturgical Reading of the Holy Scripture prior to the 5th century
Issue №3, pp. 123–129 
Nina Glibetić, Ph.D. in Eastern Christian Studies, Assistant Professor of Liturgical Studies, University of Notre Dame (USA)
Liturgical Renewal Movement in Contemporary Serbia
Issue №36, pp. 129–156
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.36.4.005
The article is devoted to the peculiarities of modern worship and an emerging liturgical revival movement in the Serbian Orthodox Church. Among the specifics in the celebration of the Divine Liturgy representative of this renewal movement, the author lists the following: worship with the holy doors open, censing during the Alleluia, preaching after the reading of the Gospel, pronouncing eucharistic prayers in an audible voice, the elimination of the troparion of the Third Hour. Under consideration are such issues as the frequency of communion, the possibility of performing the sacrament of marriage during the Liturgy, and the removal of particles for holy 
angels during the prothesis rite. The author concludes that, on the one hand, the liturgical 
renewal movement in Serbia reflects the emergence of broader theological formation in the post-Yugoslav Serbian Church. On the other hand, criticism of the liturgical movement is largely due to the fact that Serbian believers have different levels of theological formation and different experience of participating in Church assembly, which is largely due to the specifics of the historical development of the Serbian Church. Thus, liturgical renewal is only part of a larger renewal of Church life, the goal of which is a more complete realization of life in Christ.
Keywords: Serbian Orthodox Church, Divine Liturgy, worship, Liturgical Renewal Movement, Metropolitanate of Karlovci, ecclesial body.
David Gzgzyan, Ph.D. in Philology, Dean, Faculty of Theology, St Philaret’s Institute (Moscow)
Towards possible foundations for systematic orthodox sacramentology
Issue №37, pp. 74–88
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2021.37.1.004
The article presents an attempt to define the reasons for absence of unified orthodox sacramental doctrine and therefor suggests possible foundations for building up one. The author’s understanding of sacramentum is based on vision of the nature of Church. The predominant until nowadays the so called clerical ecclesiological model limits the concept of completed sacramentum by a few formal conditions: presence of canonically justified priest, exclamation of a special sacramental formula, sacramental substance and a fixed moment of commitment. As a result this approach ignores the mystery of Church and The Holy Spirit acting freedom declared by the New Testament, and the basic significance of which was especially 
stressed by recognized Church authorities in different periods of Church history. Another foundation for an integral orthodox sacramental theory may be found in the experience of adult catechism practice which could be interpreted as the main Christian sacramental effort stemming from the high calling of the Church. Then the integral Church sacramentum appears to be an existential experience being therefore the core of Church existence including every separate act of entering the Church and also the general calling of the Church as it was explained by a number of notorious theologians. In this case The Church sacraments as well as the entire being of the Church turn into a dynamic process with unpredictable and varying 
results where their positivity is dependent on the quality of the spiritual efforts performed by a certain christial society. The efficacy of the sacraments should be therefore preferably described in terms of effort, trial and degree of commitment.
Keywords: Orthodox Church, Church nature, sacramentology, sacraments, efficacy of sacraments.
Kirill Mozgov
The Issue of Liturgical Language
Issue №3, pp. 38–49
Georgy Kochetkov, Priest, MA (PhD) in Theology
The Sacrament of the Life of Man and Church in the Light of Divinity – the Sacrament of Enlightening, or Baptism in the Broad and Full Sense of the Word
Issue №3, pp. 9–24 
Georgy Kochetkov, Priest, MA (PhD) in Theology
Sacraments of Pre-baptismal Repentance (Confession) and Baptism: Attempt at Introduction Thereof in Mystagogical Cycle of Contemporary Catechesis
Issue №6, pp. 9–28
As part of the mystagogical cycle of catechesis when the meaning of the sacrament of enlightenment is being explained in accordance with the patristic tradition it is desirable to point out that pre-baptismal repentance (confession) is seen as a sacramental pre-requisite of entering the Christian church in a proper way. The sacramental expression of this entrance is the unity of the sacraments of baptism, chrismation, and the first communion at the Eucharist. Pre-baptismal repentance as a rule constitutes a process of some duration involving a conversion of a person, i. e. a return from life in accordance with the logic of this world to his/her Heavenly Father. A renewal of life and a willingness to follow the example of Christ become the basis for ‘baptism into Christ’ and open to the newly baptized the gracious way of further sanctification and transformation of his/her life in the Church and in the world.
Keywords: mystagogy, pre-baptismal repentance/confession, baptism, enlightenment.
Georgy Kochetkov, Priest, MA (PhD) in Theology
Chrismation (Liturgical Sacrament of Life of Man and the Church in the Holy Spirit) in Mystagogical Part of Catechesis
Issue №7, pp. 9–27
The sacrament of Chrismation needs to be considered in close relation with the sacraments of Repentance (confession) and Baptism into Christ, which are united in the greater sacrament of Enlightenment, i. e. entering, becoming part of the Church. The sacrament of Chrismation holds a special place in this list having to do with the reception of the gift of life in the Holy Spirit. This sacrament is a testimony to the prophetic nature of Christianity and the messianic status of Christians. The present article also analyses the historic and liturgical as well as the canonical aspects of the sacrament of Chrismation, in particular the rites of receiving apostates and the heterodox into the Orthodox Church.
Keywords: Chrismation, sacrament, rites of reception into Orthodoxy.
Oxana Kudryashova
The Rites on the Eighth Day after Baptism and their History in Church Practice
Issue №19, pp. 9–25
The present liturgical study analyses the rites administered to the newly baptised on the eighth day after their baptism. The author inquires into the origin of the rites and their sequence, structure and composition. The rites are considered in terms of actions and prayers as the final phase of the sacraments of baptism and chrismation and as a spiritual stage of the neophyte’s entry into the Church. Their textual correlation to the ancient Christian sources is also investigated. Taking into account the relevance of these rites today, particular attention is paid to the participation of the church gathering and of the newly baptised. 
Keywords: baptism, washing off the Holy Chrism, seal, tonsure, eighth day, chrismation. 
Natalia Kushnir
Special Aspects of Deaconesses’ Ministry in the Context of Their Liturgical Ordination 
Issue №12, pp. 83–102
The article analyses various liturgical practices for ordination of deaconesses. Analysing the content and ritual aspects of these ordination practices is aimed at identifying the ministries delivered by deaconesses who were ordained using different practices at different times across Eastern and Western Christian churches. Structural and content analysis of ordination practices along with analysis of their ritual aspects highlight several ministries varying in their specific aspects and focus from one church to another depending on the historical era.
Keywords: deaconesses, ministry, ordination, chirotesy, chirotony, catechesis, monasticism, virgins, widows.
Yulia Kuvshinskaya
The Formation of the Eucharistic Epiclesis. Early Anaphoras
Issue №3, pp. 147–162 
Issue №33, pp. 37–45
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.33.54172
This essay examines R. F. Taft’s role in the papal decision to recognize the Addai and Mari Anaphora a true eucharistic prayer, but even more so the pros and cons of this decision. The main obstacle was the position that exactly the Lord’s words “This is my body” and “This is my blood” are the sacramental “form” of the Eucharist. Yet, R. F. Taft showed that the (Roman) Catholic teaching does not mean that the transformation of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ takes place exactly when these words are pronounced. It is more in line with tradition to hold that the transformation of the eucharistic gifts takes place because Christ himself pronounced these words on Holy Thursday and because, during the anaphora, prayers of thanksgiving, epiclesis and offering express the faith that the gifts are really transformed into Christ present in the sacrament.
Keywords: Liturgy, Eucharist, sanctification, Christian unity, Assyrian church.
Marina Verkhovskaya
Personal Prayer Rule in the Liturgical Practice of the Russian Orthodox Church
Issue №12, pp. 103–126
The subject of the article is the personal prayer rule (the ordinance of morning and evening prayers as given in prayer books) and the history of its origin. The author attempts to analyse the personal prayer rule in its structure, body, type and the content of component prayers, and to juxtapose daily personal prayer and communal worship. The research was aimed at identifying the place of the personal prayer rule in the Russian Orthodox Church’s daily practice and considering the individual (private) and the church-wide aspects of a personal prayer practice.
Keywords: personal prayer rule, daily prayer, communal and private worship.
Olga Maximova
Liturgical Actions within the Process of Initiating Catechumens into the Church in the III–VI Centuries 
Issue №19, pp. 26–48
In the III–VI centuries, from the moment of admission to the catechumenate till the end of the Bright Week, every significant order of service was accompanied by liturgical actions. In total, 48 different liturgical actions were identified. According to the correlation between the significance of an action and its liturgical text, these actions can be grouped into four categories: independent, equivalent to the accompanying prayers, auxiliary, and technical ones. In various local traditions and orders of service one and the same action can refer to different groups. The presence of such actions in orders of service impelled catechumens to stay sober and to see the connection between the learning and corporality. 
Keywords: liturgical actions, liturgical gestures, catechesis, corporality, worship, III–VI centuries. 
Anna Moiseyeva
Excommunication from the Eucharist and the Evolution of Penitential Discipline in the Orthodox Church
Issue №3, pp. 163–175 
Stefano Parenti, Doctor of Eastern Christian Studies, Professor, Pontifical Liturgical Institute, Pontifical Athenaeum of St Anselm (Rome)
The Cathedral Rite of Constantinople: Evolution of a Local Tradition
Issue №33, pp. 73–99
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.33.54183
This article studies the evolution of the Liturgy of the Hours at Constantinople after the ninth century, when not only monastic churches of the city, but also secular churches followed the liturgical rite referred to as “hagiopolitis”. Only the Cathedral was left using the rite appropriately called “ekklisiastis”. The article also analyzes particular forms of “bi-ritualism” between these two liturgical systems, with the tendency to conserve the “ekklisiastes” rite during the most important times of the liturgical year. Contrary to what was previously believed on the subject, the eleventh century was not the zenith of the cathedral tradition of Constantinople, but rather an age of decadence and abandonement.
Keywords: worship, rite, Constantinople, typos, Lectionary, Euchologion, Psalter, Praxapostolos.
Stefano Parenti, Doctor of Eastern Christian Studies Professor, Pontifical Liturgical Institute, Pontifical Athenaeum of St Anselm (Rome)
The Liturgy of St John Chrysostom “Outcompeting” the Liturgy of St Basil the Great in the Church of Constantinople
Issue №28, pp. 9–42
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2018.28.23042
At the present time, exploring the history of worship implies not only analyzing liturgical texts and the processes of their formation but also studying the practices of performing divine services, as reflected in written sources, such as canons, hagiographic literature, sermons, and writings of church figures. These sources contain indications of worship peculiarities in various ages and regions. The article focuses on the complex phenomenon of the Orthodox worship of the Byzantine rite. Celebrated nowadays only ten times a year, the Liturgy of St Basil the Great used to be the main Byzantine liturgy for Sundays and holidays over the church year. However, due to certain circumstances, it has taken a back seat. On the contrary, the Liturgy of St John Chrysostom, formerly considered as a “standby” and intended for the weekdays, has gradually come to the fore during the past millennium and has begun to be viewed as the main liturgy of the Byzantine rite, as evidenced not only by liturgical manuscripts but also by surviving indirect data about the celebration practices. Despite the indisputable fact of removing the Liturgy of St Basil from leading positions, the causes of this change were not previously the subject of historical and liturgical analysis. Thanks to the achievements of comparative liturgics and the contrastive analysis of liturgical and hagiographic evidence, the author points out the major causes for this displacement and associates them not with convenience and the concision of the Liturgy of St John Chrysostom but with a whole complex of changes in the practice of liturgical piety, characteristic of monastic and lay churches in Constantinople.
Keywords: Liturgy of St Basil the Great, Liturgy of St John Chrysostom, anaphora, Byzantine rite, Orthodox worship, euchologion, typicon.
Fr Maxim Plyakin, Cleric of the Church in honor of the Nativity of Christ, secretary of the Сommission for the Сanonization of Saints of the Saratov diocese (Saratov)
Akathist to St Meletius of Kharkov by martyr Pyotr Grigoriev
Issue №36, pp. 184–208
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.36.4.008
The published document, the akathist to St Meletius, Archbishop of Kharkov and Akhtyr, written by martyr Peter Grigoriev (1895–1937) is for the first time introduced into academic circulation. The work was copied by hand, the exact date of the published manuscript could not be established; most likely it belongs to the third quarter of the 20th century. The special feature of the akathist to St Meletius is that it is written in Russian language in verse form. The introductory article describes the akathistography in Russian as an important example of liturgical creativity – a stratum of church tradition, which is most subject to change. This was manifested in a special way in the 20th century, when newly written gymnographical works were not published or subject to church censorship. The article provides biographical information about Fr Pyotr Grigoriev, the compiler of the published Akathist. Martyr Peter was arrested on the night of October 17–18, 1931 and sent first to the White Sea-Baltic Canal, the “Soslovets” crossing of the Murmansk railway and then to Volgolag. On September 22, 1937 he was sentenced to death by shooting by a special troika at the Department of NKVD of the USSR in the Yaroslavl region; the sentence was executed the next day in the same isolation unit of department III. Martyr Pyor Grigoriev was canonized as a saint of the new martyrs and confessors of Russia by the Bishops’ Council of the Russian Orthodox Church held on August 13–16, 2000.
Keywords: akathist, liturgical creativity, divine service in the 20th century, Russian language in the divine service, new martyrs and confessors of the Russian Church, martyr Pyor Grigoriev.
Valentina Saveskul
Aspects of Meaning in Apotaxis and Syntaxis
Issue №12, pp. 127–147
The article examines the subject matter of apotaxis and syntaxis. The three pivotal aspects of meaning in apotaxis and syntaxis, as based on the analysis of works by ancient catechists, Teachers of the Church and XIX–XX century researchers, are: 1) confirmation of the catechumen’s repentance and life transformation, both of which are prerequisite to baptism; 2) the last exorcism, which is carried out by the catechumen; 3) taking vows of loyalty to God, the breaking of which annuls the baptism.
Keywords: apotaxis and syntaxis, catechesis, baptism, pre-baptism repentance, exorcism, baptismal vows.
Svetlana Sonina
The Rite of Initiation of Catechumens
Issue №3, pp. 98–110 
Fr Alexander Sukharev, Ph.D. in Theology, Cleric of the Novodevichy Convent (Moscow)
“Vom Geist der Liturgie” of Romano Guardini – the most significant book of the liturgical movement in Germany
Issue №33, pp. 9–27
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.33.54104
The article is a brief summary of “Vom Geist der Liturgie” – the most significant book of the liturgical movement in Germany written by a priest, theologian and philosopher Romano Guardini. The article presents a history of the text, its key ideas, composition and style. While writing a book, which at first was addressed to the educated priests and laity from the circle of Maria Laach’ abbot Ildefons Herwegen, the author sought to describe liturgy not as a set of regulations but rather as of an objective form of prayer coming from the source of Christian tradition, thus encouraging the readers to the conscious participation in the liturgical prayer. In the concluding part it is argued that the questions raised in Guardini’s book are still important: anthropological crisis, awakening of spiritual experience, liturgical education, capability of a modern man to perform a liturgical act.
Keywords: liturgical movement, Romano Guardini, “Vom Geist der Liturgie”, Maria Laach, “Liturgiewissenschaft”, the category of opposition, liturgical act.
Robert F. Taft, Archimandrite, S. J. 
Is the Liturgy Described in the Mystagogia of Maximus Confessor Byzantine, Palestinian, or Neither?
Issue №8, pp. 9–62 
This article was written in response to the shock waves caused in Byzantine liturgiology by the suggestion of Prof. Joseph Patrich of the Department of Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem that the Mystagogy of Maximus Confessor may be commenting not on the Byzantine Liturgy, as hitherto always presumed, but on the hagiopolite liturgy of Palestine, where we now know Maximus was born and entered monasticism. Through a careful review of the facts of Maximus’ Vita with its many geographical displacements, and a comparative analysis of his Mystagogy with the eucharistic liturgies of the Byzantine and hagiopolite traditions, this study has advanced suasive (if not definitive) arguments in favor of continuing to consider Maximus’ Mystagogy a Byzantine liturgical commentary. The article was originally published in: BBGG. 2011. S. III. N 8. P. 223–270.
Keywords: St. Maximus Confessor, Mystagogia, Vita, the Byzantine Divine Liturgy, the Bematikion chant, the Bema, the Great Entrance, the Introit.
Xenia Koncharevich, Ph.D. in Philology, Professor, Department of Slavic Studies, Faculty of Philology, University of Belgrade (Belgrade)
Himnography in the modern Serbian Language: Lexicon, Stylistics, Interculturality
Issue №36, pp. 58–79
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.36.4.002
The article deals with the practice of the liturgical work in the Serbian Orthodox Church as presented by the modern Serbian literary language; special attention has been given to the services that are written in 21st century in the process of canonization of the newfound saints of God. On the example of three services (the services devoted to the Saint Peter II Cetin’ski, Rev. Stefanida Skadarska and Bitol’ska, and Rev. Justin the New Serbian) author demonstrate the possibilities of the modern Serbian language. Among the reasons for the transition to the Serbian language in the liturgical texts, the author names, firstly, freshness, originality, artistic expression and the lack of stylization, and secondly, the desire to convey the meaning of the text to the church meeting, as well as to glorify the Serbian saints in the language in which they spoke, wrote and preached. The studied hymnographic texts are based on a deep connection with the heritage of the glorified saints, which manifests itself in quotations and allusions to their texts, the inclusion of their characteristic vocabulary, especially the author’s neologisms. The listed characteristics are style-forming for modern services, and the voice of the saints merges with the “voice” of the Church and its teachings.
Keywords: hymnography in national languages, new Serbian services, lexical borrowings, stylistic features of hymnographic work, “someone else’s word” in the services of saints.
Olga Yaroshevskaya, Ph. D. in Medicine, Associate Professor, Hospital Pediatrics Department, Russian National Research Medical University (RNRMU) (Moscow)
On Baptising “Weird-Looking Newborns”: Issues Related to Children with Severe Pathology according to the Priest’s Service Book by Metropolitan Peter (Mogila) and the Current Church Practice
Issue №24, pp. 61–71
The article analyses the explanatory notes “On Infant Baptism” and “On Baptising Weird-Looking Newborns” in the Priest’s Service Book by Metropolitan Peter (Mogila). On the one hand, these arguments clearly indicate the meaning of baptism has been distorted from the original understanding and perceived as a magical action to secure a favorable fate for a non-viable baby in the afterlife. On the other hand, the question arises with no decisive answer yet: how can the church bear witness to the human dignity of children with severe malformations.
Keywords: baptismal rite, Metropolitan Peter (Mogila), infant baptism, severe malformations.
Maxim Zelnikov, Ph.D. in Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Associate Professor, lecturer, St Philaret’s Institute (Moscow)
On the history of the Liturgical practice of orthodox church in the XX century: the use of holy objects and substances
Issue №33, pp. 46–72
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.33.54179
The article focuses on the research of possible outer and inner reasons of certain peculiarities of eucharistic worship concerning usage of bread, wine, holy vessels and vestments in Russian orthodox church in XX century in time of persecutions. Expecting future deprivation, the All Russian Local Council of 1917–1918 allowed to celebrate eucharist using rye bread, berry juice, simplified and cheap vessels and vestments at emergency. We investigate why after the Council in the absence of wheat bread and grape wine some clergymen refused celebrating eucharist while others used for eucharistic worship bread of any content, juices or even water, crockery instead of chalice and non-standard vestments. We show that under the ideological influence of the Council there appeared the following tendencies in the practice of XX century confessors of faith: 1) vanishing in liturgical actions features symbolizing “symphony” of church and state; 2) weakening of scholastic requirements to the content of eucharistic substances; 3) deviation from “Antiochene” symbolism of eucharist as salvation history to “Alexandrine” interpretation of this sacrament as real co-participation of believers in the Last Supper.
Keywords: new martyrs and confessors of XX century, eucharist, theology, liturgical practice, holy objects, the content of eucharistic substance.
Maxim Zelnikov
Some Old Testament and Early Christian Sources on the Rite of the Lifting of the Panagia
Issue №3, pp. 176–184
Zoya Dashevskaya, Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Theology, senior lecturer SFI (Moscow)
Translations of the Anaphora Prayers of St John Chrysostom in the First Half of the 20th Century: A Theological Interpretation of the Liturgical Text
Issue №36, pp. 26–57
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.36.4.001
This study proposes a theological analysis of early 20th century various liturgical translations of one the most highly used liturgical texts – the Anaphora of St John Chrysostom. The goal of this study is to reveal the theological particularities of the various translations; the author then proposes her own interpretation of specific elements within the text of the Eucharistic prayer. The study also attempts to illustrate various translators’ personal approaches to the text of the Anaphora when rendering it into Russian language. The author focuses on the translations of Fr Sergei Petrovsky, Fr Pyotr Polyakov, Fr Vasily Adamenko (later Hieromonk Theophan), and Bishop Makary (Opotsky), occasionally making reference also to other translations. 
The authors and compilers of the published translations were closely acquainted with the possibilities that translation into Russian language presented for their task of translating the text of the Anaphora, given that they were brought up and received their spiritual education in a prerevolutionary linguistic environment. The beginning of the 20th century saw the development 
of a tradition of research into the text of the Eucharistic prayers, as can be seen from looking at the curricula of courses in Liturgics being taught at Russia’s spiritual academies at that time, as well as reviewing Masters and Doctoral theses, written by graduates of these same academies. A theological basis for the given translations can therefore be assumed. Translations of liturgical texts, for instance A Collection of Ancient Liturgies (Sobranije drevnikh liturgij), were produced within the framework of dedicated academic research, thanks to which interested readers had the opportunity to acquaint themselves with ancient liturgical practice. 
Thanks to A Collection of Ancient Liturgies and other liturgical studies undertaken at the spiritual schools, there arises a translation initiative which proposed the integration of academic research and pastoral practice. The authors of these translations hoped not only to educate by making the practice of church liturgy more accessible to the participants with their translations, but aspired even to enable lay people to participate more actively and thoughtfully in worship. At the 
same time, the fact that some of the translations appear in a form intended for use by clergy when serving liturgy, shows that it was possible for clergy to make use of such texts. The conclusions of this study show that the authors of the translations not only translated the original Greek of the Anaphora into Russian, but made use of theological interpretation when doing so, thereby proposing clarification and interpretation within the framework of the translations themselves.
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, liturgical translations, Liturgy of St John Chrysostom, anaphora, Fr Sergij Petrovsky, Fr Pyotr Polyakov, Hieromonk Theophan (Adamenko), Bishop Makary (Opotsky).
Report of the Council of the Brotherhood of saints Peter, Alexy, Jonah and Philip of Moscow about the need to translate divine service books into Russian for home use
Issue №36, pp. 170–183
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.36.4.007
The published report of the Council of the brotherhood of Sts. Peter, Alexy, Jonah and Philip of Moscow (1909–1918) on the need to translate the liturgical books into Russian for home use was compiled by the Council for consideration at the General meeting of the brotherhood and was intended for making a decision on a petition to the Holy Synod. The document addresses the problem of the Church Slavonic text of the service being misunderstood by the faithful and 
suggests measures to remedy this situation. The issue of improving the quality of Church services was one of the most important activities of the brotherhood of the Moscow saints, which set out to help the Church authorities and parish institutions to ensure that the service was performed with due pomp and with the widest possible participation of the laity in reading and singing. Unfortunately, it is not known what the Synod’s reaction to this document was. Nevertheless, this report shows that the translation of the divine service into Russian was recognized in the early 20th century as a pressing problem. The introductory article presents 
the main information about the brotherhood of the Moscow Sts. Peter, Alexy, Jonah and Philip, as well as the specific features of creating and discussing the report. This is the first publication of the document.
Keywords: divine service, translation, Church Slavonic language, brotherhood, conciliarity, F. D. Samarin, P. B. Mansurov, reviews by diocesan bishops.
Translations of Divine Services into Modern Languages Interview with Fr Georgy Kochetkov, S. Parenti, E. Velkovska, P. Vassiliadis, A.G. Kravetsky, A.V. Subochev
Issue №36, pp. 100–128
DOI: 10.25803/SFI.2020.36.4.004
The theme of the language of worship and liturgical translations in the Russian Orthodox Church started to be intensively discussed in the second half of 19th – early 20th centuries, inter alia in connection with the preparation of the 1917–1918 Local Council. However, the discussion was stopped for the entire period of Soviet power and resumed only in the 90s of the twentieth century. It is important to consider the issue of translating divine services into modern languages in a historical context, taking into consideration the experience of other local churches. It is necessary to discuss theological, philological, cultural and pastoral problems that arise in translating certain texts of divine service; there is also a need for a joint search for ways to resolve them. The question of the language of worship is closely related to the question of the boundaries of the Church assembly, the full responsibility and participation of the laity in the sacraments of the Church, and therefore it is also directly related to the issues of revival and renewal of Church life. The interview includes responses from liturgists, philologists and translators of the divine service, who consider the positive and problematic aspects of this topic using historical examples and modern translation experience.
Keywords: liturgics, language of worship, modern liturgical translations, translation activities of Cyril and Methodius, church assembly, liturgical revival.
The question of translation is a question of the living tradition of the Church (Foreword from the Editor-in-Chief)
Issue №36, pp. 24–25
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