Philosophy of Religion
Principles of Christian Education according to A. S. Khomyakov and I. V. Kireyevsky
Выпуск №31, pp. 204–234
This article outlines the principles of education characteristic of Russian cultural traditions, in the opinion of A. S. Khomyakov and I. V. Kireyevsky. The founders of Slavophilism identified and described the Russian type of education in relation to European education. The both authors emphasised not the confrontation with the way of thinking, dominant in European science and education, but rather the diversity and value of the native spiritual and intellectual culture, organically evolved over the centuries of Russian history. According to the author, A. S. Khomyakov and I. V. Kireyevsky pointed up three principles specific for Russian education: the equilibrium of convictions and way of life; the integrity of person in the unity of faith and reason; ecclesiality. I. V. Kireyevsky and A. S. Khomyakov as well as their followers not only developed their ideas in theoretical writings but also put them into practice.
Keywords: Slavophiles, enlightenment, education, science, theology.
An Experience of Secular Metaphysic - Part I: Descartes
Выпуск №10, pp. 11–34
The phenomenon of “secular metaphysics” is considered as special entertainment of reason seeking perfect clarity. It is demonstrated, that an attempt to reach the clarity by means of ideal constructing results in the creation of total systems. This is shown by means of analysis of metaphysical system of R. Descartes.
Keywords: metaphysics, ideal constructing, clarity, totality.
A Response to the Opponents
Выпуск №16, pp. 113–117
Experience of Secular Metaphysics. Part II: Spinoza
Выпуск №14, pp. 29–53
This article continues the study of the phenomenon of secular metaphysics . It is considered as a special venture of reason pursuing perfect clarity. This paper is focused on the metaphysical project of B. Spinoza. Following Descartes, this thinker extrapolates the methods of natural science to the intelligible sphere seeking the perfect understanding of God, world and human being.
Keywords: metaphysics, ideal construction, clarity, totality.
Ideal Construction and Genesis of the Mathematical Science
Выпуск №7, pp. 51–73
The birth of a new cognitive strategy and a corresponding world view during the Scientific Revolution of the XVII century is reviewed in the article. The basis of this strategy is the ideal (theoretic) construction implemented by means of mathematics. The latter is viewed as an alternative to qualitative ideal construction peculiar to Aristotle and late Middle Ages. Mathematized ideal constructions create a special means of world apprehension, grounded in developing the initial theoretic scheme. Within its framework the connection of elementary ideal objects accessible for quantative description is defined.
Keywords: Mathematical Science, Ideal Construction, Method, Conceptional Experiment.
Secularity, Post-Secularity, and Russian Religious Philosophy
Выпуск №16, pp. 63–82
In the paper secular and post-secular thought are compared with Russian religious philosophy. It is demonstrated that the post-secular interpretation of religion is quite opposite to the position of Russian religious philosophy. However it is also opposite to the secular rationality. This paradoxical situation becomes clear, if we notice some essential similarity between Russian religious project and rational secular project. Both projects try to be total. They oppose each other because they seek for the different totalities. Secular rationality seeks for the totality of reason. Religious philosophy tries to include reason in the religious totality. As distinct from both, post-secularity refuses from any kind of totality. Post-secular project does not presuppose to construct any integrity. The main concept of this project is complementarity. It implies the partnership of different discourses, which are complementary to each other.
Keywords: secular, post-secular, religion, integrity, totality, complementarity, discourse.
Universal Axiology: Bases, Difficulties and Perspectives
Выпуск №14, pp. 9–28
The article reviews the causes, sources and problems of building axiological ethics by its founders M. Scheler and N. Hartmann. Particular attention is paid to the difficulties of grounding the universal nature of the suggested hierarchy and classification of values.
Keywords: values, hierarchy of values, axiological modality.
Mother Maria’s “New Soul” in Her Life and Work
Выпуск №24, pp. 124–135
The article summarises the results from research on the concepts “new” and “newness” in the theological, hagiographic, publicistic, poetic, and artistic legacy of Mother Maria (Skobtsova), as well as in her life and church ministry. The core question of the article is about the newness of the righteous martyr’s life and work, of her response to the challenges of her time. The author analyses Mother Maria’s most significant writings within the context of the continuity of Russian religious thought. The idea of implementing sobornost and projecting it over all the spheres of Christians’ life is the key to comprehending the newness in Mother Maria’s life and work.
Keywords: newness, Church, “Orthodox Action”, sobornost, implementation, shared life.
Mother Maria (Skobtsova) and the Religious-Philosophical Renaissance of the Early XX Century: a Dialogue with V.V. Rozanov
Выпуск №24, pp. 101–123
The article considers the dialogue between Mother Maria and V.V. Rozanov, the foremost representative of the new religious consciousness of the early XX century. Mother Maria’s polemic with Rozanov is explored within a broad historical and cultural context (Gogol, Dostoevsky, Leontyev, Merezhkovsky, Berdyayev). The author highlights the key issues of the discussion, such as the correlation of Christianity and the world, Christian asceticism (church nihilism, monophysitically denying the world) and humanism (“pink Christianity”), and, consequently, the question of the church’ social ministry. Rozanov and Mother Maria appear as successors of the Zosimovian tradition of Christian humanism — philanthropic Christianity, open to the world and oriented towards serving it.
Keywords: Mother Maria (Skobtsova), Rozanov, Dostoevsky, Leontyev, Christian asceticism, Christian humanism, social ministry of the Russian Orthodox Church.
“God and Man: Unity and Differences” in the Works by N.F. Fyodorov and A.P. Platonov
Выпуск №14, pp. 54–64
The article attempted to highlight the meaning of the notions “God” and “man” in the works by the two renowned writers, philosophers, and thinkers N. F. Fyodorov and A. P. Platonov. Nikolay Fyodorovich Fyodorov was a believer; his philosophical views had an impact on the young Andrey Platonov, whose literary activity began in the revolutionary period when the spiritual bases of life were subject to questioning and rethinking.Keywords:
Keywords: N. F. Fyodorov, A. P. Platonov, issues of mystics, God, man.
Cogito ergo est esse absolutum
Выпуск №10, pp. 35–60
Semion Frank considers himself to the tradition of Christian Platonism; he is sure that every true philosophy begins with the mystical experience of the Absolute Unity of being in God. Phylosophy is actually the confession of the past, the try of rational expression of superrational experience. Frank’s consept of the Absolute Unity grew out of his mystical intuition, he felt working on his first book “The Object of Knowledge”. Afterwards almost forty years of his live were devoted to attempts to delve into the opend to him Inknowable. The article traces the basic
milestones of the spiritual path of the great philosopher.
Keywords: Russian religious philosophy, Christian Platonism, mystical intuition, ontological proof of God’s existence, theodicy
Friendship in the Economy of the Church (Reflections of Fr. Pavel Florensky)
Выпуск №20, pp. 51–74
The present paper is a study of the notion of friendship (or philic love) as viewed by Pavel Florensky in his work The Pillar and Ground of the Truth. The notion of friendship is Florensky’s response to the theory of the ascetic eros seen as a path to individual immortality — a theory that enjoyed popularity in the beginning of the twentieth century. Florensky understands friendship as an ontological reality which makes it possible for human nature to transform.
Keywords: friendship (philia), eros, agape, person and thing, homooúsios and homoiousios, kenosis, multiple-one entity, «molecule of love», Church.
A Word of a Grateful Reader. Contribution at the presentation of G. B. Gutner’s Book “The Basis and Motivation of Scientific Knowledge. Discourse on Wonderment”, 4 November 2018
Выпуск №29, pp. 124–128
The Miracle of Reality. Reflecting on G. B. Gutner’s Book “The Basis and Motivation of Scientific Knowledge. Discourse on Wonderment”
Выпуск №29, pp. 129–150
The article deals with the philosophical context of G. B. Gutner’s book in relation to its central thesis of the non-utilitarian origin of scientific practice which reveals itself as wonderment. The latter is understood not as a psychological state but as perplexity caused by the complexity and the obscurity of an object that does not fit into models created by scholars. This perplexity is fraught with converting the tool of theory into the object of research. As shown in the article, this approach to the research practice is fundamentally contrary to the assertion of the primacy of practice over theory which determines the evaluation of scientific progress starting with the modern age until now. Gutner’s thought runs counter both to the position of the so-called new realists and that of radical constructivism reinforced by evolutionary epistemology. Hidden debates with Heidegger and Wittgenstein as well as the “images of wonder” which were revealed by such outstanding thinkers as Euclid, Plato, Kant, Descartes, Einstein, and Heisenberg are also highly original. The article concludes by considering another important aspect of G. B. Gutner’s book, his understanding of the specificity of religious practices, their irreducibility either to explanatory theories or instructive rituals. Although, in part for this reason, religious and research practices differ from each other, they share their relation to reality as a miracle which is revealed by virtue of existential balancing between belief in it and wonderment that it actually happens.
Keywords: knowledge, realism, constructivism, reality, miracle, religion, G. B. Gutner
On the Totality, Secularism and Post-Secularism (Reflections on the Article by G. B. Goutner)
Выпуск №16, pp. 83–99
The article discusses in what sense the great cultural epistemes — such as the sacred episteme of Christian Middle Ages and the secular episteme of modern Europe — can be called total or repressive. At the same time, secularisation is understood as a local historical process that has not only time but also geographical constraints. Since the beginning of the XXI century there is ongoing widespread discussion about post-secularism that is supposedly taking place of secularism. The author tries to show that this statement is true only in a very narrow sense. The article challenges G. B. Goutner’s opinion that Habermas’ theory of discourse is a new global post-secular project, which overcomes the total character of previous cultural epistemes.
Keywords: totality, the sacred episteme of Christian Middle Ages, the secular episteme of modern Europe, postmodernism, post-secularism.
On Characterising the Slavophiles’ Political Theory: About Ivan Kireyevsky’s Beliefs
Выпуск №31, pp. 189–203
Over recent decades, the Slavophiles’ political theory has been relatively seldom made the subject of a special analysis. It has been customary to reproduce traditional historiographic judgments, which cover neither new sources on the topic, introduced over the years, nor the results of developing related topics. The article aims at considering some subjects to characterise more accurately the political beliefs of Ivan Vasilyevich Kireyevsky (1806–1856). As one of the most prominent figures among the Slavophiles, he attracts attention mainly for his philosophical and some of his theological views. By no means rebutting this view, the author provides a brief description of his political beliefs of his mature period (late 1830s). In his writings of that time, Ivan Kireyevsky appears as a political theorist, attentive to the conceptual row, who assumed in 1855 the conservative-liberal nationalist position oriented towards the Anglophile tradition. Of particular interest is Kireyevsky’s position in relation to “law” and “legality”. In contrast to the prevailing interpretation of Slavophilism by Aksakov, disregarding formal legality and almost opposing it to justice (within the dichotomy of an “outer truth” versus an “inner” one), Kireyevsky advocates the unity of justice and legality.
Keywords: history of Russian social thought, nationalism, political theory, Russian liberalism, Slavophilism.
Cursory Notes on Totality, Secularity, and Russian Philosophy
Выпуск №16, pp. 100–112
This paper is a polemical response to Grigory Goutner’s “Secularity, Post-Secularity, and Russian Religious Philosophy”. The discussion is centered around the issue of the correlation between totality and network-type integrity, while secularization is interpreted as an attempt to shift the integrity type from the former to the latter. The project of naturalism is the contemporary realization of the secular way of thinking; nevertheless, it failed to take its place among the items discussed in the Goutner’s article. The Goutner’s project of complementary discourses is opposed by the project to connect the network-type integrity and the totality on equal grounds and within the same conceptual framework. In this context it is challenged that Russian religious philosophy has been working exclusively within the paradigm of totality. Finally, the prospects of Russian religious philosophy are discussed.
Keywords: totality, integrity, fragmentariness, network-type integrity, theological determinism and free will, secularity, the project of naturalism, Russian religious philosophy.