SFI ACADEMIC PERIODICAL “THE LIGHT OF CHRIST ENLIGHTENS ALL”. ISSUE 27
The Light of Christ Enlightens All : Academic periodical of St. Philaret's Christian Orthodox Institute. Issue 27. Moscow : St. Philaret's Christian Orthodox Institute, 2018. 184 p.
History of the Russian Orthodox Church
Conference “The 1666–1667 Councils and their Consequences for Russian church life”
Professor, Paris-Sorbonne University (Paris)
On the Textual History of the Book of Conversations by Archpriest Avvakum
The article discusses the Book of Conversations, one of the lifetime collections of the writings by Archpriest Avvakum, compiled by the author himself. In default of a scholarly publication of the entire text, many questions remain open, such as establishing the dates of each conversation and of the collection as a whole. Analysing the new version of the first conversation, preserved in the manuscript from E.V. Barsov’s collection (the Russian State Library), makes it possible to identify the fragments of the text remaining unpublished up until now. These permit to take a fresh look at some episodes of persecution of early Old Believers.
Keywords: Book of Conversations, Old Believers, Archpriest Avvakum, Old Russian literature, Old Believers martyrologies.
Lecturer in History, “Career” Secondary School (Moscow)
Religious Persecution of Old Believers as a Factor of the Internal Colonisation of Russia in Populists’ View
This article considers the reform populists’ views on the issue of religious persecution of Old Believers as a factor having contributed to the colonisation of marginal territories of the Russian State in the late XVII — first half XVIII centuries. The author comes to the conclusion that populists considered colonisation as a part of the general problem of social progress in the country. The exploration of the new territories by Old Believers was regarded by populists as distributing in Russia social forms of activity that denied state centralisation and based in non- bourgeois principles.
Keywords: populism, Old Believers, religious persecution, colonisation, I. I. Kablits,Y. V. Abramov.
The Old Believer Issue in the Proceedings of the Pre-Conciliar Presence
The article outlines the discussion on Old Belief and Edinoverie (uniated part of Old Belief and Russian Church created in 1800) in the VI Department of the Pre- Conciliar Presence in 1906. The projects aimed at drawing together the Edinoverie and the Russian Church are presented. The author describes the Department’s judgments on the urgent need of resolving the issues related to appointing a bishop for Edinoverie parishes and to the opportunity of reversing the curses on the Old Rite. Priest Simeon Shleyev’s position on the missionary significance of Edinoverie is also introduced. As the debates within the Department demonstrated, the Russian Church was not ready to reconcile with the entire Old Believers’ world. However, this discussion marked a new stage in the development of Edinoverie in Russia and determined the agenda of the forthcoming All-Russian Council of the Orthodox Russian Church on the Old Believer issue.
Keywords: Old Belief, Edinoverie, Orthodox Old Believers, Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy, Pre-Conciliar Presence, Fr. Simeon Shleyev, All-Russian Missionary Society.
Leading Research Associate, V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow)
Addressing the Old Believers’ Experience in the Discussion of Church Reforms of Worship at the turn of the XX century
The article deals with cases of the Russian Church’s recourse to the Old Believer experience in the XIX and XX centuries, primarily in matters related to worship and correction of liturgical books. It considers the language archaization program by N. Ilminsky, the church calendar archaization program by N. Nikolsky, the procedure of canonization, the introduction of new types of service and a number of other innovations aimed at the experience of Old Believers. It is shown that the part of the Russian society that had adopted the reforms of Patriarch Nikon saw Old Believers as custodians of the ancient tradition and turned to their experience in addressing specific issues of church life.
Keywords: Russian Church history, Old Belief, church reforms, worship, church singing, Church Slavonic, patriarchate, canonization.
History of Orthodox Brotherhoods and Spiritual Unions
Vice-Rector for Theological Researches, Saint Petersburg Orthodox Theological Academy (Saint Petersburg)
Brotherhood at Parish or Parish at Brotherhood? On the History of the Russian-Estonian Orthodox Brotherhood Named after the Holy Hieromartyr Isidore of Yuriev
in Saint Petersburg
The Brotherhood named after the holy hieromartyr Isidore of Yuriev was established in 1898 in Saint Petersburg at the Estonian parish, immediately after the final canonization of the saint. The new brotherhood became a kind of “cast” of the Orthodox Baltic Brotherhood, founded by M. Galkin-Vrasky, although the latter’s objectives were markedly different. The immediate goal of creating the brotherhood was to build an Estonian Orthodox church in the capital and to get church life for Orthodox Estonians on the right track. In a fairly short time, the parish house was built at the expense of the brotherhood, which organized various social activities by having opened a school, a hospitage, a workhouse, a printing house and a library with a reading room. However, due to the rigid connection with the parish, both structurally and organizationally, the brotherhood was to share its destiny. The active life of the brotherhood and the parish began to fade away in 1915 because of the new diocese-scale cares undertaken by Archpriest Paul Kulbush, the brotherhood’s organizer, builder and rector of St. Isidore church (the future hieromartyr Platon, Bishop of Revel). The year 1917 undermined even more significantly the activities of the brotherhood. At first, Kulbush’s departure to the Revel chair, then the outflow of former parishioners to Estonia, the economic crisis, the separation the school from the church forced to give up almost all social projects. By the beginning of 1918, the church nominally continued to be listed as the parish of the Estonian Orthodox brotherhood, but the brotherhood itself soon receded in memory.
Keywords: Orthodox brotherhood, Orthodox Estonians, St. Isidore of Yuriev, Paul Kulbush, Platon of Revel, St. Isidor church, Orthodox parish, Orthodoxy in Saint Petersburg.
Associate Professor, Department of Contemporary Russian History, Historiography and Records Management, Voronezh State University (Voronezh)
Voronezh Community of Archpriest Mitrofan Buchnev
The article introduces into academic discourse the history and composition of the women’s religious community created before the revolution in Red Valley village, Zadonsk district, Voronezh province, by Priest Mitrophan Fyodorovich Buchnev whose name is included in the database “New Martyrs, Confessors for Christ who suffered during the persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church in the XX centu- ry”. After his conditional conviction in 1920 and his relocation to Voronezh, some members of the community followed him. Soon this association became the cen- tre of attraction for Voronezh believers from different social strata. The life jour- neys of the community members and of the priest himself are traced on the basis of documentary sources.
Keywords: Voronezh, M. F. Buchnev, Blessed Theoktista, community, chernichki, repression against clergy, concentration camp.
Missiology and Catechetics
The Significance of Liturgical Language for Engaging Church People in Worship
The multifaceted objective of meaningful participation of people in church prayer is considered in this article in relation to the used language. In the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, the issue of liturgical language was addressed in different ways. Despite the serious debates and suggestions at the 1917–1918 Great Moscow Council, this problem remains quite pressing today. In order to better approach and to evaluate existing solutions, it is recommended to refer not only to the history of the Russian Orthodox Church but also to the experience of other Slavic churches in the XX century that introduced their national languages in worship.
Keywords: participation in worship, divine service in national languages, Church Slavonic language, liturgical translations, history of liturgical translations.
Head of the Department of History and Culture of the Ancient East, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences; associate professor, deputy director, V. S. Golenishchev Centre of Egyptology, RSUH; Associate Professor, SFI (Moscow)
Narrative of the “Monastic Utopia” in the Coptic Literature as a Result of Convergence
The article investigates one of the “wandering” topics of Christian literature — the image of the monastic earthly paradise or utopia in the writings of the “peregrination” genre. This study is focused on the development of this topic in the Coptic “Life of St. Onuphrius the Anchorite”. Some details in the Coptic versions show that their Greek original was different from the extant Greek text. On the other hand, it is possible to trace parallels with the topics of the pseudepigrapha — the legend about the paradise of the Egyptian priests Jannes and Jambres, the pre- Christian legend of the blessed descendants of Rechab. The coincidence of details, especially in some proper names, and the structural similarity suggest that the Coptic text is a result of the convergence of different traditions.
Keywords: Christianity, patristic hagiography, pseudepigrapha, earthly paradise.
Archimandrite Tavrion (Batozsky): On the Issue of Canonisation
Archimandrite Tavrion (Batozsky) (1898–1978) was a monastic clergyman of the Russian Orthodox Church whose years of service fell within the period of persecution against the church in the USSR. The holiness of his life was primarily manifested in the traditional forms of his liturgical, preaching and pastoral ministry. Along with this, his life and ministry had several features characteristic of professing faith and building church life during the Soviet period. The article aims at highlighting the unique aspects of Archimandrite Tavrion’s service as the signs of his holiness in terms of the “new martyrdom and confession” in the XX century.The study is based on various sources such as the publications and transcripts of Archimandrite Tavrion’s sermons, his personal memories and letters from exile to his flock, the memories and testimonies of his spiritual children, archive records (investigation files, etc.).
Keywords: Archimandrite Tavrion (Batozsky), new martyrs and confessors of the XX century, canonisation, criteria of canonisation, holiness.
Independent scholar (Saint Petersburg)
A. A. Akhmatova’s Funeral within the church life of the 1960s in Leningrad
The funeral service for A.A. Akhmatova was organised in Leningrad by her son L.N. Gumilev with the help of Priest Vasily Butylo. Initially, it was planned to hold the funeral ceremony at the Transfiguration Cathedral. However, after L.N. Gumilev and Fr. Vasily had visited Vicar Bishop of Tikhvin Philaret (Vakhromeyev) St. Nicholas Cathedral of the Epiphany was chosen. The service was officiated by Archpriest Alexander Medvedsky, the only clergyman of the city awarded with the Patriarch’s Cross, together with Deacon Pyotr Kolosov. G.S. Zharinov, Leningrad Plenipotentiary on Religious Affairs, forbid to let more than one priest and a big church choir take part in the service as well as to light up large chandeliers. The two last prohibitions were ignored. The involvement of Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov) of Leningrad and Ladoga in realization of the most worthy funeral ceremony is discussed in the article.
Keywords: A. A. Akhmatova, L. N. Gumilev, Leningrad, St. Nicholas Cathedral of the Epiphany, Bishop Philaret (Vakhromeyev), Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov).
Academic Secretary, SFI; Associate Professor, Herzen University (Saint Petersburg)
Review of the conference “Gulag Legacy: History, Memory and the Sacred in the Post-Soviet Russia. The legacy of the Gulag in post-Soviet Russia: history, memory, sacred ". Amsterdam,8–9 June 2018
Annotation of the book: Behr J. John the Theologian and his Paschal Gospel: A Prologue to Theology (Beer J. John the Theologian and his Easter Gospel: A Prologue to Theology)
Professor, SFI (Moscow)
Book review: Matveeva Yu. G. Decorative fabrics in Ravenna mosaics. Semantics and cultural and semantic context. Kiev; Kharkiv: Spirit and Litera, 2016