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Academic Periodical

The Quarterly Journal of St. Philaret’s Institute

Issue 38 (spring 2021)

SFI Journal. Issue 38

SFI Journal. Issue 38

The Quarterly Journal of St. Philaret’s Institute. 2021. Iss. 38. 288 p.

For the 70th Birthday of Priest Georgy Kochetkov: Editorial Foreword
pp. 9–12

Missiology, Catechetics, Homiletics

Archpriest Vasile Mihoс, Doctor of Theology, Supervisor of Doctoral studies, Faculty of Theology, Lucian Blaga University (Sibiu)
Preaching the Word. Catechists and Catechumens (Galatians 6:6 in the context)
pp. 13–31
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_13
The article focuses on the interrelation between faith and preaching. The special significance of preaching the Word of God as a continuous ministry of the church is emphasized. Some aspects of how the teaching ministry was organized since the apostolic times are presented. The interaction between catechists and catechumens is outlined, based on the exegesis of Galatians 6:1–10. In particular, the focus is on Galatians 6:6, according to which those who are instructed in the word should share all good things with their instructors. The author distinguishes two approaches to the interpretation of this verse depending on the meaning attributed to the verb κοινωνέω. According to the author, the effort of the catechists was aimed not only at preparing catechumens for baptism but also at baptised members of the church, of whom the continuous instruction in faith is no less important than teaching catechumens.
Keywords: theology, catechetics, faith, preaching, Epistle to Galatians, catechists, catechumens.
Kirill Mozgov, Senior Lecturer, Chief Publisher, St Philaret’s Institute (Moscow)
Catechisms for Catechumens as a Recording of the Catechetical Tradition of the Church: an Attempt at Building a Typology of Catechetical Literature
pp. 32–48
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_32
The genre of the catechism has an important role in the tradition of the Christian church. However, upon closer examination, it turns out that under the heading “catechism” sometimes there are very different texts. In addition, the name “catechism” did not immediately become traditional, and, therefore, not all catechisms include this word in their title. Having appeared as a guide for those entering the church through the early Christian tradition of catechism, catechetical texts, after the cease of the regular catechism in history, more frequently became theological encyclopedias, often of a polemical character. 
The characteristics of this genre of Christian literature are considered in this article, making it possible to propose a certain typology and divide the catechisms into “catechization catechisms” and “dogmatic catechisms”, based on the structure, content and addressee of the text. Although historically catechization catechisms were replaced by dogmatic catechisms, in the 19th century catechisms of both the first and the second type were created. As an example of the revived genre of catechization catechisms written in the 20th century are cited the following: “Christian Faith” by priest. Konstantin Aggeev, “Catechization conversations with the baptized” by archim. Boris (Kholchev), and “In the beginning was the Word: Catechism for the candidates” by priest. Georgy Kochetkov.
Keywords: theology, catechetics, the catechism, catechization catechism, dogmatic catechisms, typology of the catechisms, priest Konstantin Aggeev, archimandrite Boris (Kholchev), priest Georgy Kochetkov.

Patristics

Alexey Dunaev, Ph.D. in History, Leading research associate, Institute of World Culture, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Moscow)
From the History of Translations of the “Chapters on Love” by St Maximus the Confessor into Church Slavonic and Russian
pp. 49–102
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_49
The full Church Slavonic translation of the “Chapters on Love” and its revisions are explored in detail, and there is an overview of the Russian translations of the 19th and 20th centuries. A number of manuscripts are drawn to the history of ancient translation for the first time, allowing for significant specification of the history of the original translation. It is proved that the translations of the fragments in the Slavic izbornik (anthologies) are derived directly from the Greek text and do not depend on the full Church Slavonic translation. The archetype of the complete translation (the time of creation needs to be specified; probably not earlier than the late 10th or early 11th centuries) underwent an initial editing between the 11th and 13th centuries, reflected on the one hand, in Sin and Деч, on the other – in Гам, Хлуд and Син. 644. New versions of the translation were carried out with the involvement of divergent Greek manuscripts in the first half and the middle of the 14th century. The first such edit is reflected in the БРА. A later version, presented in Нням, was widely spread in the Slavic countries. Manuscripts have also survived (Печ. 90 and 91, Гильф), which present a “mixed” text with occasionally combined variants of earlier and later editions. The late edition was used by Arseny the Greek, who made minor revisions to it from the old printed editions of the Greek text and published the translation in the book “Anthologion” (1660). The text from the “Anthologion” was sequentially checked by Revd. Paisios Velichkovsky with different later manuscripts (according to the БРА and Нням), as well as with the Greek text from the Venetian edition of the “Philocalia” (1782). The glosses preserved from these verifications are analysed in this article. The Church Slavonic translation of the “Chapters on Love” from the “Anthologion” was reprinted in 1816–1817 and 1819, parallel to the first Russian translation by St Philaret (Drozdov). Using the example of chapter IV, 5, some features of the Russian translations of St Philaret (1816), St Theophan the Recluse (1889) and A. I. Sidorov (1993). The conclusion emphasises the unity and continuity of the Church Slavonic translation tradition over many centuries, and also the significance of the book “Our Holy Father Maxim, On Love” (1816–1817) in the formation of a new tradition of translating patristic works into Russian.
Keywords: patrology, St Maximus the Confessor, translated Old Russian literature, Russian translations of patristic works, Arseny the Greek, Revd. Paisii Velichkovsky, St Philaret (Drozdov), St Theophan the Recluse, A. I. Sidorov.

Ecclesiology

Marina Naumova, Vice Rector for Development, St Philaret’s Institute; Postgraduate student, SS Cyril and Methodius Theological Institute of Post-Graduate Studies (Moscow)
“The faithful”, “the laity” and “the people of God” in the theological legacy of N. P. Aksakov: to the issue of the content of the concepts
pp. 103–123
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_103
In his ecclesiological studies, church historian and canonist N. P. Aksakov attempts to restore the New Testament content of the terms “faithful”, “laic” and “the people of God”, with the aim of reviving in the Church the doctrine of the royal-priestly dignity of the members of the people of God. The term “layman” is not excluded by the scholar as being rooted in the church, although he notes its inconsistency with apostolic tradition. In his writings, Aksakov fleshes it out with a different meaning, putting it on a par with the concepts of “faithful” and “laic”. To be faithful, laic, laity is a vocation and at the same time it is a church rank. Ordination to this rank is performed in the sacrament of baptism, and the main characteristic of life is service. The service performed by the faithful raises them to the dignity of a member of the people of God. The Church is the people of God, consisting of the faithful, exercising the priestly ministry common to all in the various areas of activity of the Christian community: in worship, in election and ordination, in administration and in the church court. In the exercise of the ministry of the universal priesthood of the people of God, conciliarity is realized as the fundamental quality of the Church. The alienation of the people of God from the ministry detracts from the conciliarity and distorts the life of the entire church body. The experience of church life shows that the people of God who renounce their vocation are thus deprived of their royal and priestly dignity and risk acquiring the status of an “accidental gathering”. A Christian who does not serve God becomes uninitiated, degrading to a layman (in the sense of a profane or secular person) in his aspirations, the quality of faith and life.
Keywords: theology, ecclesiology, N. P. Aksakov, royal priesthood, laic, the people of God, priesthood, clergy, conciliarity.

Church History

Konstantin Obozny, Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Dean, Faculty of  History, Head of the Department of Church and Social History, St Philaret’s Institute (Moscow; Pskov)
Archpriest Livery Voronov: materials for the biography
pp. 124–159
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_124
The article is devoted to little known episodes from the life and ministry of Professor-Archpriest Livery Voronov. The first part of the study refers to the time when Voronov began his church service on the occupied territory of the Leningrad Region, part of the Pskov Mission. His church and missionary work ended in Tallinn in October of 1944 with his arrest, prosecution and trial. The accused Voronov, pleaded not guilty on charges of anti-Soviet activities and cooperation with the German secret services but was nonetheless sentenced to 15 years’ imprisonment in a correction labour camp. After his release Fr. Livery returned to church ministry and spiritual education. During the difficult time of the anti-religious campaign, he completed his studies and in 1961 started teaching at the Leningrad Theological Academy. At the same time, he began working in the Department of External Church Relations under Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov). In the early 1970s a series of events occurred which led to the dismissal of Fr. Livery from the Department of External Church Relations and the Educational Committee of the Russian Orthodox Church (the Moscow Patriarchate) and then to a strained relationship with the Publishing Department of the Moscow Patriarchate. As far as possible he found support in these difficulties from Metropolitan Nicodemus. At the same time, Archpriest Liverius was consistent and principled in his ministry in the field of spiritual education and ecclesiastical studies. Until recently, Professor-Archpriest Livery Voronov maintained his loyalty to the academy and his love for his mother Ekaterina Vassianovna. He left a good memory with his students and pupils, and served much to ensure that even under Soviet conditions the Theological Academy of the Northern Capital was the best spiritual school of the Russian Orthodox Church (the Moscow Patriarchate).
Keywords: Professor-Archpriest Livery Voronov, Pskov Orthodox Mission, Leningrad Theological Academy, Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov), Department of External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate.
Andrey Kostryukov, Doctor of History, Ph. D. in Theology, Leading Staff Scientist, Department of the Russian Orthodox Church’s Modern History; Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law, St Tikhon’s Orthodox University (Moscow)
Rapprochement of the Russian Church Abroad with the Old Style Movement during Metropolitan Filaret’s (Voznesensky) life
pp. 160–179
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_160
The article is devoted to the history of rapprochement and rupture of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCA) and the Greek old-style movement during the life of Metropolitan Philaret (Voznesensky). Being a supporter of the isolation of the ROCA and keeping alive traditions, he actually renounced unity with the world Orthodoxy, preferring communication with the Greek old-style structures, as the most “steadfast” in matters of faith. The leadership began to make statements about the Church Abroad as a “little island” in the middle of a general “apostasy”. The voices calling on the church leadership to abandon such ideas were not heard. The negative attitude towards the new calendar manifested itself in the condemnation of the Bulgarian parishes of the ROCA, as well as in the refusal to accept the position of St John (Maximovitch), who wanted to create the “universal path” of the Russian church emigration and to be tolerant towards traditions and rites. In 1970, the Abroad Synod recognized one of the branches of the Greek old-style movement, the “Florinit”. In 1971, another branch, the “Matthew’s”, was recognized. At the same time, the possibility of recognition of the latter branch was discussed at the Cathedral level. The problem was that the “Matthew’s” hierarchy began with only one bishop. Soon, however, the old-style structures began to drag the Church Abroad into their conflicts, as well as demand a final separation from world Orthodoxy. The latter was unacceptable for the ROCA, which led to a break with the Greek old-age churches in 1975–1976.
Keywords: theology, church history, Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Old-Style Movement, Julian Calendar, New Julian Calendar, Metropolitan Filaret (Voznesensky), St John (Maximovitch), Archbishop Anthony (Bartoshevitch), Bishop Gregory (Grabbe).

Interdisciplinary Research

Andrey Teslya, Ph. D. in Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow, Academia Kantiana, Scientific Director Research Center for Russian Thought, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)
Essay on Brotherhood: The Political Thought of Modernity
pp. 180–195
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_180
The essay examines the main lines of interpretation of the problem of “brotherhood” within the framework of the three “great ideologies” of the 19th century, inherited by the next century – liberalism, conservatism and socialism. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the complex relationship between early socialism and religion/religious issues – and understanding “brotherhood” as the principle of building horizontal affective ties. Early socialist thought – for which one of the key concepts-images is “brotherhood”, is interpreted in connection with religiosity and the problem of a new religious basis for the desired social order. Attention is drawn to the fundamental importance of Feuerbach’s philosophy, which opens the way to thinking about society and about a person and about historical transformation in the future without the indispensable establishment of a new religion (or a new understanding, interpretation of the old). In the aspect of conservative thought, the author analyzes the tension that exists between the representation of the desired/due social structure as built according to the family model, the combination of the concepts of “family” and “brotherhood”, with the potential hierarchy inherent in these concepts, their emancipatory potential, on the one hand, is on the other hand, the potential aimed at establishing the present order turns out to be a co-present, internal tension. The latter aspect is especially revealed in the interpretation of nationalism – and nationalist thought of the 19th and 20th centuries. In conclusion, questions are raised about the relationship between the concepts of “brotherhood” and “sisterhood”.
Keywords: ideology, political theology, nationalism, romanticism, socialism, philosophy of religion.
Priest Stephan Lipke, Ph.D. in Philology, Director, The St Thomas Institute (Moscow)
“He has brought down rulers from their thrones but has lifted up the humble” (Lk 1:52): Transformation of Structures of Power and Violence in F. M. Dostoevsky’s Novel “The Idiot”
pp. 196–213
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_196
In this essay we investigate the link between Nastasya Filippovna in F. M. Dostoevsky’s novel “The Idiot”, on the one hand, and Our Lady in St Luke’s Gospel, on the other hand. In doing so we focus particularly on the “Magnificat” (Lk 1: 46–55). Both the novel and the gospel we interpret with the help of the feministic exegesis. Nastasya Filippovna perishes because, in her youth, she has suffered sexual abuse by a powerful and rich man, Totsky. She cannot be saved neither by her own goodness, nor by a potential savior like Prince Myshkin. It is also doubtful whether her first name “Nastasya” (anastasis – resurrection) and her family name “Barashkova” (baranek – lamb) indicate that she is the “Risen Lamb”. Yet her birthday party on the feast day of “Our Lady of the Sign” (27th November, according to the Julian Calendar) might hint at the turnover of structures of power and violence, which Our Lady praises in the “Magnificat”.
Keywords: Violence, feminist theology, Evangelical turnover of values, M. M. Bakhtin, E. Schüssler Fiorenza.
Victoriya Faybyshenko, Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate professor, St Philaret’s Institute (Moscow)
pp. 214–240
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_241
The habitual union of memory and history is being replaced in our time by a deep rift between them, in which both sides change their very essence. Memory becomes a rift in the very ideology of history. The author surveys various possibilities of memory as an act performed by the remembering subject (“performative act”), not so much in relation to his or her individual past as in relation to a common present. The author looks at memory as the practice of subjectivity, i. e. only in one of the modes of its existence. The exercise of memory as a practice of subjectivity brings together different types of memory, whether they are personal or transpersonal. The issue in question is what happens with the subject of commemoration, himself. This article looks at three types of memory and remembrance. Psychological memory demonstrates the fragmentation and lack of self-sufficiency of human experience of “the self”, and the fundamental lack of integrity of this experience, which turns into need and deficiency.
Ideological memory presupposes that the past “belongs” to a subject which is forging and finalizing history (for instance, the state) – to one who holds the exclusive right to “tell history’s story”.
The third type of memory might be called performative: it assumes not the ability to recall, but the establishment of relationship with those who are present even in their absence. At its centre is the restoration of memory as an act and event in which a radical, transhistorical experience can take place. This act establishes a community of the living with the dead; this community has a paradoxical, temporal nature.
Keywords: Memory, history, epiphany, performative act, community of the living and the dead.

Reviews and Abstracts

Yulia Antipina, Independent scholar (St Petersburg)
The overview of the conference “Contemporary Orthodox Ecclesiology: Theological Foundations of Church Unity” (Moscow, March 29–31, 2021)
pp. 268–276
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_268
Yulia Balakshina, Doctor of Philology, Academic Secretary, St Philaret’s Institute; Associate Professor, Herzen State Pedagogical University (Moscow; St Petersburg)
The roundtable overview “Orthodox Brotherhood in Modern Russia: the Reality of the Impossible” (Moscow, February 1, 2021)
pp. 277–280
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_277
Mikhail Smirnov, Doctor of Sociology, Professor, Pushkin Leningrad State University
Christian churches on the “parabola of politicization”. Book review: Lunkin R. N. Churches in Politics and Politics in churches. How modern Christianity is changing European society: Monograph. Мoscow : IE RAS: Nestor-History, 2020. 504 p.
pp. 281–286
DOI: 10.25803/26587599_2021_38_281
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